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The materials of the Depositary as a means of preservation.


The materials of the Depositary as a means of preserving and studying languages

(for example, Nenets)

M. D. Lublin



In language you can write or speak, ie language functions in oral or written form. Nenets language — recent writing tradition, for him, as for most small languages, is now used mainly oral form, and to transmit immediate information. At the last conference, in St. Petersburg, I talked about how we T. Y. Sherstinova, my colleague from St. Petersburg state University, applied audio for multimedia phrasebooks and dictionaries.

The Depositary will contain mostly texts. With the departure of the older generation is lost tradition of skazitelstvo, as a form of "training the next generation, transmission worldview, "rules of life". So decreasing function of the tongue, forgotten words and phrases. Modern sources of information, and modern young people in the majority do not know how to listen to tales, epic songs in their own language. The creation of the Yamal branch of the phonogram archive — Depository — gives you the ability to hear spoken language, in addition to everyday communication in many situations.

1. Collection of the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature of the RAS contains oral texts of different genres, collected at different times, from different artists. The specifics of each storage unit transmits the installation of the collector of the genre, the speaker, the place, the approach to recording quality, etc.). The volume of the collection is very large, and thus (I hope), it adequately conveys the specificity of the expression of specific oral language. In recent years, with the development of technical tools for the processing and preservation of the oral form of the language, the phonogram archive collection is becoming well-structured, easily accessible.

2. Today, as a result of the project "Voices of tundra and taiga", funded by the Dutch Scientific Society (2003 to 2005), scanned, and digitized the collection and described their content. In particular, the languages of the peoples of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous district represented there: Evenki (the largest collection); Nenets; few Selkup, which really requires an expert; Khanty, part of which is the heritage of V. K. stanica. Currently 11 digitized audio collections in the Nenets language, and additional records are waiting for their treatment. In the collection includes different genres of works: from the song melodies without words to epic genres, collected from the 30's of years until today. Collectors were A. P. Parerga (in his bibliography this fact is not noted), G. D. Fedorov, A. M. Shcherbakova, B. M. Dobrovolsky and others Texts were written in the places of residence of the Nenets, and in Leningrad, in the audio archive, in particular, from the students of the Institute (then Department) of peoples of the North. There are records of students of the time E. G. Sousou and L. P. Komarova, made in February 1956 (for example, Elena G. sings "Avada Yung (My rosogolla)" — collection of 268, Matt 0227.06; Love takes the census melody Nenets songs in the genre of "Song without words" or, more precisely, no story line throughout the song is repeated in different words the same idea — a collection of 268, Matt 0227.03).

Some Nenets materials published in the project report noted "the Quality of philological material handling... is very high, and these materials deserve to be published." (Collections of the peoples of the North in the phonogram archive of the Pushkin house. SPb., The philological faculty of St. Petersburg state University, 2005, p.28).

Now additionally received the materials from the archive of the Folklore Commission in the languages of the peoples of the USSR. Among them, the Nenets language presents more than 1000 units. For them it is necessary to determine the location of the archive, to attribute, to include in the catalog, digitize — actions that require high skills and time. Undeciphered materials require decryption, but in the team of the phonogram archive of the technical work is done 3. Therefore, such binding effect as the deciphering of the materials (both old and newly admitted, they are not very real.

3. The decision to create Yamal copies of the phonogram archive materials in the languages of small peoples in the region, primarily in Nenets, can be very beneficial for both parties. For Yamal side this will give the opportunity to use widely spoken language, to acquaint young people with differing genres of oral speech on the early stages of education, starting with children's songs, fairy tales, mysteries. Children from the earliest years to learn to listen to the stories; will get acquainted with different methods of their execution (legend always executed in a melodic rhythm, singing alternates with recitation or are two by — 'talagala' and 'Lachance Matt' [1]), and their later transfer to their descendants; so it can be restored the tradition of leaving skazitelstvo. This is the first step Dating.

High school students, College students, these materials will be able to pass a folklore practice — learn to record and decrypt a text to translate, to conduct sound, grammatical, lexical analysis). And the phonogram archive and Institute of linguistic studies, RAS will provide the necessary methodological support in this difficult case. Qualitysize Yamal teachers of the native language is great enough to lead this practice, it is also possible to conduct several information sessions on processing of audio archival material taking into account the recommendations not only of the Department of Languages of the peoples of Russia", but other departments and OR IRLI ran, with experience. With modern technologies of distance learning technically easy to organize workshops, control classes with specialists folklorists, linguists.

Such attributes of the texts will be very valuable for phonogram archive will give him the missing material, and, in turn, will provide data for a more detailed description of grammar, folklore, sound Nenets language.

4. For this programme you need:

1) Compile a list of texts for learning, from kindergarten through high school. For this we first need to compile the program for the study of oral speech (Nenets, in the first place, it will be folklore).

2) According to the materials of the phonogram archive of the Pushkin house to make the training program — directory (list) oral works by which the student (or teacher) could choose what interests him and to listen to. The user should be able to stop, to repeat a certain section, at any time to switch to another product for comparison.

3) For more complex processing of decoding the text should be added special text boxes providing the correct spelling for the Nenets (for our case) language. For this it is necessary to involve specialists in archival Affairs (OR from wounds and organizations YANAO) and language specialists.

Successful decryption and the comment will be assigned to the corresponding unit of the Depositary, and this training program will contribute to the preservation and study of the language and traditions of the Nenets people.

[1] the song, written and published by E. T. Pushkareva, was performed by the students of the Institute of peoples of the North Olga, Vanuatu and Mariana Haruki. Their performance epic work differs from traditional.

Interesting fact:

Ethnicity is historically established stable social grouping of people represented by a tribe, a people, a nation. The main condition for the emergence of the ethnic group is a community: - consciousness - consciousness of their unity and difference from all other similar formations; - site; language; and culture.