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An overview of linguistic and geographical situation in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous district
Denisov V. N., candidate of philological Sciences, associate Professor, scientific consultant of the project.
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, occupying a vast territory in 750 000 square kilometres in North-Eastern Siberia, has a small population in the district lives only about 542,7 thousand people (2008). Thus, the population density of the district is only 0.7 persons per km2. The ethnic composition of the district are more than 50 nationalities. The total number of inhabitants of the Russian population of 58.9%, Ukrainians - 13.03%, Tatars – were 5.47%, Nenets – 5,21%, Belarusians – 1,77%, Khanty – 1,76%, Komi - 1,22%, Selkups – 0,35%. The population are mainly located on the banks of the Ob river and other large rivers, as well as in the southern part of the Gulf of Ob. The share of urban population — 58%.
The indigenous population is approximately 33,000 people. Of these, the Nenets – about 27,000, Khanty – 8 760, Selkup – 1 797, Mansi, only about 200 people.
For the first time indigenous peoples of the North of Russia (SIM) were isolated in 1926 by an official decree "On the establishment of the interim regulations on the administration of indigenous Nations and tribes of the Northern margins of the RSFSR". Then their was composed of 26 peoples of the North Saami, Nenets, Khanty, Mansi, Enets, Dolgan, Nganasan, Selkups, kets, Evenks, Yukaghirs, evens, Chukchi, Koryaks, Eskimos, Aleuts, Itelmens, Tofalars, Ulchi, Nanai, Nivkh, Udege, Negidal, Orok, Oroch, Chuvans. Later, in 1993, the list was supplemented by cogently, Shors, Teleuts and Kumandins, and a little later - and other peoples. Total the number of indigenous peoples living in the North of the Russian Federation, is currently 36.
The languages of the indigenous small-numbered peoples of the Russian North (36 of the 45 included in the Unified list of indigenous minorities of the Russian Federation) is divided by geography, language (genetic and structural) and ethnographically on:
1. The Chukchi-Kamchatka group:
, Chukchi languages;
2. The eskimo-Aleut group:
3. Isolated languages:
4. Samoyed group, which is part of the Uralic language family:
5. The Finno-Ugric group, which itself is part of the Finno-Ugric family of languages:
Finnish band: Sami
Ugric group: Mansi and Khanty languages;
6. The Manchu-Tungus group, which presumably is part of the Altaic language family:
- languages of North-Tungusic subgroups:
South Tungusic subgroups:
7. Turkic group:
the language of Chulym Turks
The first three groups traditionally are combined under the name "paleo-Asiatic group of languages". The Yukagir language is presumably related Innopro-Samoyed. Since the precise criteria for distinguishing between languages and dialects are not available, languages such as Aleut, Khanty, eskimo, Yukaghir, and some other, existing in the form of a number of vastly different dialects, with different interpretation can be considered as closely related languages.
Demographic processes of the territories inhabited by indigenous peoples of the North, occur very rapidly and peculiar as a result of migration processes associated with economic development of these regions. For example, the total population in the Yamalo-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous districts over the past 10-15 years has increased to 14-15 times, while the number of indigenous peoples in these regions increased by only 9.7%. Overall, as a result of the migration of expansion of the share of the indigenous peoples of the North fell from 14% to less than 2%.
For the first time reliable data on the size and resettlement of indigenous obtained during the first General population census of 1897. In 1926-1927 by the expanded program was conducted circumpolar census. The subsequent all-Union census of 1959, 1970, 1979, 1989) differed less informative regarding the SIM. According to the 1989 census, indigenous minorities accounted for only 1.2% of the Russian population. The sámi indigenous Northern ethnic groups were also in the minority as a result of the influx of migrants (Russians, Ukrainians, Belarusians, Tatars, etc.). From 1897 to 1989, the number of the SIM increased by 123% (whereas the population of Russia – 118%); according to the 2002 census by 117% (compared to 1989).
The number of the Nenets and Evenki is growing, while the Saami, kets, Selkups remains approximately stable. (+)
Indigenous peoples of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug.
Most numerous among the indigenous peoples of Yamal are Nenets. They are divided into two groups: tundra and forest. Tundra Nenets mostly settle in Yamal, Taz, Uralic, Nadym areas. Herders and hunters in the winter migrate to the forest. They say on the tundra Nenets dialect of the language.
Another group is the forest Nenets, mostly inhabiting the taiga zone: the upper reaches of the river PUR, the average and somewhat lower current. The group says the forest dialect and focuses mainly on hunting and fishing. Therefore, their material culture differs from tundra Nenets its special characteristics.
In addition, the Nenets live in vast areas of tundra from the Northern Dvina river. The Dvina river to the Delta of the Yenisei river. Some Nenets also scattered on the territory of the Kola Peninsula. Thus, they reside in the following regions of the Russian Federation:
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug - 60,3%;
Arkhangelsk region - 20,7%, including Nenets Autonomous area is 18.5%;
Taimyr (Dolgano - Nenets) Autonomous district, which is 7.1%.
Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug - 3,3%;
Murmansk region - 0,5%;
According to the last census of 2002, the total population of the Nenets is 41 454 people. It is recognized native 77.7% of Nenets, and 80% use their language in everyday life. The writing had appeared in 1932 based on the Latin alphabet, and since 1937 operates on the basis of the Cyrillic alphabet. As noted above, the Nenets language belongs to the Samoyedic group of the Uralic family of languages.
The designation "nenezi", "Nena nenezi" (man) was introduced in official use in 1930. Before this name was known as Samoyeds, Samoyeds-uroki. Regarding the origin of the term "Samoyed" there are a number of assumptions. Most likely its origin from saam-jedna – land of the Sami (B. O. Dolgikh). According to the most reasoned hypothesis (I. E. Fischer, M. A. castrén, G. N. Prokofiev), Samoyed community has developed in southern Siberia. In the first century A. D. part of Samoyeds moved to the North, and the other part became part of the Turkic peoples of southern Siberia. A large part Samoyeds during the 1st Millennium BC spread of the Ob, the Yenisei and the rivers in the Northern taiga, tundra and then, here bringing reindeer farm type and assimilating aboriginal people. Then the ancestors of the Nenets moved from the lower Ob river in the West to the White sea, and to the XVIIth century on the East to the Yenisei. (I. I. Lepekhin, P. S. Pallas, I. G. Georgi).
Many generic names are preserved in the Nenets to date as surnames (Vanuatu, Ezinge, Lapsui, Lar, Nanyang, Noho, Acetato, O. u, Haruki, eptic, Yavtysy, etc.).
The Nenets earlier was typical of a father (Patriarchal) gender (arcar). Males accounted for a military unit. In collective ways of hunting and ranching played a big role camp (NASA) - the Association of families in which the men belonged to the same genus, and women to be different. In terms of tribal exogamy young man had to look for a future wife in a different way. Usually question about marrying the son of the father. Outlining the bride, were sent matchmakers, agreed on the amount and dowry. Wedding ceremony included a simulated abduction (abduction) of the bride.
Religious beliefs were based on animistic conceptions, according to which the Supreme heavenly deity - the demiurge Num - ruled the world with the help of other deities and spirits, and his wife I` -neba - "Mother earth" – the old lady-patroness, bringing forth and preserving all life, protect home, family and hearth. Antagonist NUMA stands nga - world evil incarnate, the spirit of the underground world, the deity, the sending of disease and death. Each lake, fishing the tract had their spirit masters. They sacrificed the deer, making offerings (pieces of cloth, coins, tobacco, etc.) so that the spirits granted health, good luck in reindeer husbandry and fishery. On the sacred places, which could be stones, rocks, groves, put idols in the form of anthropomorphic figures. Sacred tree believed larch.
Shamanism is closely connected with the ancient religious beliefs of the Nenets. Usually the title of shaman was transferred to the man or woman inherited.
For Nenets folklore characteristic personification (the embodiment), when along with the characters the protagonist is himself the tale (mineco). This technique is widely distributed in fairy tales, where the animate being is called, Lachance word. Among Nenets tales (Lachance, wedeco) there are stories about animals, magic, and legendary household. Often their characters are deities, spirits of the owners of the places. They are protagonists in other genres of folklore - legends, prayers-conspiracies, shamanic songs.
Following the group number of the indigenous population of Yamal are Selkups (former name, until the 1930s – the status of the Samoyed) who inhabit the vast territory between the middle course of the Ob and Yenisei rivers, mainly at their tributaries Tym, ket, vasjugan, Tomsk region., PP. PUR and Taz in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous district, the Tyumen region and R. taruhan in the Krasnoyarsk region. Originally Selkups dwelt on left and right tributaries of the Ob, including R. Parabel with tributaries Cusick and Kanga.
Currently according to the 2002 census the total number of Selkup is 4 367 people. They live in several Siberian regions of the Russian Federation, including:
in the Tyumen region is 45.2%,
- including in the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous district – 42,4% (1530 people)
in krasnoselkupskiy, Tazovskiy and Purovsky districts);
- in the Tomsk region is 37.3% (1347 people);
- Krasnoyarsk Krai - 10,2% (359 people).
The Selkup language belongs to the Samoyedic branch of the Uralic family of languages and has 3 dialects:
South (tym and ket);
In different areas from 20 to 50 % Selkup speaking native language.
Selkups are semi-settled way of life, mostly as hunters and fishermen. Reindeer herding in this nation is underdeveloped.
In the early 1930s was created Selkup alphabet based on Latin script, which most adequately reflects the ratio of the sound structure of the language and display it in the chart. Then began the publication of textbooks in the national language. Then Selkup writing has been translated into Cyrillic base, but it was done very properly. During the 1930's in rural primary schools was carried out teaching on the Selkup language using the Latin alphabet. Then the teaching of language, a work which was translated into Cyrillic, began to decline and, by the mid-1950s teaching and the publication of textbooks on Selkup completely stopped, which ultimately led to the cessation of active use of the written language. New writing, also on the basis of the Cyrillic alphabet, the newly developed and became widespread only since the early 1980-ies.
Selkup folklore presents a variety of genres (heroic songs, historical legends, tales, riddles, jokes, sayings). In traditional folklore is a big part of the narrative about various adventures of the hero, his battles with evil spirits (masters of the elements). Despite all their cunning in the fight against human evil spirits are always defeated. The Selkup tales tell of the wars that the ancestors were with the Nenets and Evenk; the southern Selkups, a legend of the wars with the Tatars. Allies Selkup these legends are chum and Khanty. In folklore Selkup contains many indications old, long outdated beliefs and their associated cults.
Modern Selkups, especially representatives of the Tomsk region, many folklore works are performed in Russian. From musical instruments to the southern Selkups were distributed harp – mouth bone (antler) plate with vibrating reed, a seven-stringed harp Swan. Both of these tools are common in the southern part of the area of settlement of the Selkups. Harp also served as a women's shamanic tool and replaced the shaman tambourine. The Northern Selkups better known shamanic drum.
Musical culture of the Selkups have been preserved in the practice of folk performers. Individual characteristics and the notation of music Selkup was carried out by A. M. Eisenstadt, A. O. Vaisanen, T. Yu. Dorokhovo, L. S. Lapteva. Musical instruments described in the works of E. A. Alekseenko, K. Donner, G. I. Blagodarov, I. A. Brodsky (Bogdanov), G. I. Pelikh, D. E. Prokofieva. National name of musical genres and instruments specified linguists M. A. castrén, A. P. Dul'zon, E. A. Helimski, S. I. Irikov, I. Erdelyi.
They are scattered across a vast territory of Siberia and the Far East: between the right tributaries of the Ob river in the West and the sea of Okhotsk coast and about the PTO, Sakhalin in the East coast of North. Arctic ocean on the North, Siberia and the Amur river in the South. According to the 2002 census, the number of Evenks living in the territory of Russia, is 35 thousand people. Outside of Russia is home to 20 thousand Evenk people who live in North-East China (Manchuria, the Khingan foothills) and in Mongolia (upper reaches of IRO and oz. Buir Nur). In the Russian Federation Evenk settled in the following regions:
The Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) – 14,43 thousand people of
the Krasnoyarsk region 4,34 thousand people.
(Dudinka district of the Taimyr Autonomous district and in the Turukhansk district)
Evenk Autonomous Okrug – 3,48 thousand
Khabarovsk Krai – 3.7 thousand
Republic of Buryatia – 1,68 thousand
Amur region – 1,62 thousand
Irkutsk region – 1,37 thousand
Chita region – 1,27 thousand
Sakhalin region – 138 people.
In the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous district of the Evenks live compactly in the villages Ratta krasnoselkupskii district. Their number today is more than 100 people.
In XIX–XX centuries they were known as the Tungus. This word is raised to the ancient (first century BC) Central Asian ethnonym "Tung-Hu", from Mongolian "Tung" – forest, or to Yakut "Tong CSS" – people with frozen lips, i.e. speaking in an incomprehensible language. There are, however, other points of view.
The name – "Evenki, even"; local groups of Evenks also call themselves "orochon" – from R. Oro, or from Oron – deer (Baikal-Amur), Ile – people (Katanga and verkhnelensky), Mata (Olekminsky), cilan (residents of Okhotsk coast) and others.
Evenk language belongs to the Northern (Tunguska) subgroup of the Manchu-Tungusic group of the Altaic family of languages. The Evenk language is divided into 3 major dialect groups: North – on the North of the Krasnoyarsk territory and the Irkutsk region (achanovski, olimpiski, tatanaki and Olenek dialects); the South in the basin of the Podkamennaya Tunguska river, on the left Bank of the Yenisei river, in the upper reaches of the Lena river and in parts of the Baikal region: simski, uchanski, tolminski-verhovensky, Pribaikalsky (Severobaikalsk and Bauntovsky), talocci and podkamennotungus dialects; East from the Lena river to the Okhotsk coast of Sakhalin island: Barguzin, uchursky, Ayano-Maysky, CSD-Urmia, Tuguro-Chumikansky, Zeya-Bureya, Sakhalin dialects, and Olekma and Aldan group of dialects. Russian language fluent in 55,7%, and it is considered native to 28.3%, speak Yakut, Chinese languages.
Evenk script was created based on the Latin alphabet in 1931, 1937, was translated into Cyrillic. First of Evenki primer and the first textbooks in the Evenk language were written by G. M. Vasilevich. Literary Evenki language is based on Podkamennaya dialect. From 1930-ies in the Evenk language of instruction in schools. In Yakutia is also broadcasting.
Folklore includes songs improvisation, mythological and historical epics, stories about animals, historical and genre traditions, etc. Epos sung recitative, often in the performance was attended by the audience, repeating the separate lines for the narrator. Separate groups of Evenks had their epic heroes (zoning). Permanent heroes – comic characters were also household stories. Musical instrument known - harp, bow hunting, etc., from dance – dance (hayro, sado), performed under song improvisation. The game was in the nature of competitions in wrestling, shooting, running, etc. Were developed the art of carving on bone and wood, metal (men), beaded embroidery, Eastern Evenki – silk, applique fur and cloth, embossed on the bark (women).
For a long time among the inhabitants remained cults of spirits, fisheries and ancestral cults, shamanism. There were elements of the Bear festival – rites connected with butchering killed a bear, eating his meat and burial of bones. Christianization of the Evenks was conducted from the 17th century, so currently most of them are Orthodox. In some regions, for example, in Transbaikalia and the Amur region is still strongly influenced by Buddhism.
According to the 2002 census the number of this indigenous people of North-East Siberia and the Far East is 19 242. They speak the language of the North (Tunguska) branch of the Manchu-Tungusic group of the Altaic family of languages. From 30 to 50% of the evens is currently still speak the native language, but mostly people older than 30 years. In ethnographic literature, the evens also known as the lamuts (even from a Lama – sea). Common regional name – ORACAL, elkan and others Settled local groups:
in the Republic of Sakha (Yakutia) in allaikhovskiy, Momscom, Tomponsky, Srednekolymsk, Verkhoyansk, Ust-yanskiy Kobjajsky, lower Kolyma, verchnekolymskiy, Oymyakon, Abyysk, Bulun, aveno-Bytantayskiy districts;
in the Magadan region in the olsky, Severo-Evensk, omsukchansk, Tenkinsky, those, who wish, yagodninsky districts;
in the Khabarovsk territory in the Okhotsk district of;
in the Kamchatka region in Bystrinsky, Penzhina, Olyutorsky, Tigil districts;
in the Chukotka Autonomous district in Bilibino and Anadyr districts.
The first books in the language of the evens were: "Tunguska primer with prayers," "Short Tungus dictionary" – belonged to the Archpriest tauaiskaya the Church of the intercession Stefan Popov. Were printed in Moscow Synodal printing house in 1858-1859, for the First time the script was created in 1931 based on the Latin alphabet, but in 1936 translated into Cyrillic. Literary language operates on the basis of the olsky dialect.
From 1932 on Evensk language began to emerge primers, textbooks, original and translated fiction. In 1936-1940 in Magadan even published the newspaper "Oretty truth". Currently there are even writers and poets (N. C. Tarabukin, A. A. Cherkasov, etc.), writing in their native language. Revive traditional festivals evens (Minec, Arkadak, the Holiday of reindeer breeder, etc.).
According to the census of 2002 the number of kets in the Russian Federation is 1891 people. the Main area of their existence - middle Yenisei. Name from the word "ket" - "man" was made in the 1920s Earlier chum salmon were known as the Ostyaks, Yenisei Ostyaks. The so-called advanced on the Yenisei river in the early seventeenth century, Russians – similar to the already known Ob-Ugrian Ostyak (Khanty) and Samoyeds - the Selkups.
The origin of kets is a complex process of interaction with different languages and cultures and groups occurring in different areas over a long period of time. The ket language is classified as an isolated language has a unique system that had no matches in the neighbouring languages. It is usually attributed to the Yeniseian language family, uniting along with live ket disappeared by the mid-nineteenth century languages Arinov, Assanov, Cotto, pumpokol and other related ketam peoples. At the turn of BC citazione group lived in the mountain-taiga areas where originate PP. Irtysh, Tom, Abakan and the Yenisei. The part of their migration to the North is, in all probability, to the IX–XIII centuries, Remaining on the ground gr. gradually disappeared in the migrant, primarily Turkic, environment. Advanced in the area of CP. Irtysh – Vasjugan chum for a while they lived in close contact with the ancestors of the Selkups and Eastern Khanty, then moved to the East and across the Ob river, Tym has reached the Yenisei tributaries SYMA and Eloqua. Separate groups descended on the Tom river and through the Ob came to R. ket. In the XVIII – early XIX century was the promotion of kets to the North, the border of their settlement there began the RR. Turukhan and Kureyka. Chum small groups live in Turukhansk and Baikit (Evenk Autonomous Okrug) districts of the Krasnoyarsk territory. In the Turukhansk territory of the district are living compact 4 groups:
eloguiskaya (the village at Kellogg R. Logui);
Argutinsky (POS Solutia in the lower reaches of the same tributary of the Yenisei);
Paulichenka (POS Balanica on the Yenisei);
Kureika (POS Serkova on the river Kureyka and settlement Maduike on the lake. Sandwiche).
The majority of the population of chum salmon are only in the village of Kellog. Individual family kets live in other settlements of the Turukhansk district – Vorogovo, Sumarokovo, bahta, Verkhneimbatsk, Kangoroo, Vereshchagino, Horosiha, Turukhansk, etc. 5 compact group kets - 178 person – she lives in the village three villages on the Podkamennaya Tunguska river.
In the YNAO, according to researcher of the Northern peoples, O. A. Kazakevich, lives only about 15 representatives of the people.
Since the mid-nineteenth century there are 2 known dialect of ket: Imotski and simsci. Simsci (ugsi) is now increasingly recognized as an independent language of a Yeniseian language family. Overall, the ket language has a tendency to a gradual withering away.
Khanty (name – "Hunty, Honda, cantec") - people in Western Siberia with total population according to the census of 2002 was 28 678 people. The bulk of the Khanty live in the Khanty-Mansiysk - 11.900 people, representing 52.8% of the total. On the territory of the Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug is home to 8 760 or 30.5 %, in the Tomsk region - 804 persons or 3.0 %. A small number of them also settled in the Komi Republic is approximately 0.3% of the total. Until the early twentieth century Russians called Khanty Ostyaks.
Khanty language along with Mansi and Hungarian is Ugric group of the Finno-Ugric languages. In the Khanty language, there are three groups of dialects: Northern, southern and Eastern. In the lexicon of the Khanty language reflected the neighbors. So, reindeer herding terminology and names of winter clothing similar to Nenets. In anthropological terms, Khanty are the most characteristic representatives of the Ural anthropological type, which includes also Mansi, Selkups and the Nenets. The closest relatives of the Khanty origin, language and culture - Muncie, particularly close to the Northern group.
The Khanty are one of the few peoples of Siberia, which has its own statehood in the form of Autonomous district. It played an important role in the consolidation of the ethnic group (to the inception of the Eastern district of Khanty called the North "other people"). Especially the role of national statehood in the preservation of traditional culture and language. The degree of their preservation in the County is much higher than, for example, Khanty Tomsk region, where the traditional way of life lost.
Traditional classes Khanty - river fisheries, taiga hunting and reindeer herding. In southern areas and along the river Khanty since the nineteenth century engaged in animal husbandry and horticulture. Great importance in the life of people has gathered. Reindeer herding is prevalent in most parts of the territory of the Khanty. In the tundra and forest-tundra in the ways of reindeer herding, their team, types of sleds and sled it can be attributed to the Samoyed. In the forest reindeer herding area of local origin, mainly transport purposes. Practiced free or semi-free grazing.
Your browser may not support display of this image. In the spiritual culture of the Khanty great importance is the bear cult and the associated complex of rites (bear festival). Originally, the bear festival was held only by members of fratrie "then", it was believed that it originates from the bear. Over time, the celebration became popular. In addition matriliny revered and tribal totems. Before the beginning of fishing seasons they brought sacrifices.
Khanty not had a developed form of shamanism. Shamanism was mostly family related. Shamans had special robes except for the cap of a cap. Shamanic drum also had no clearly-defined symbols main parts. Diamonds in different groups of Khanty were different and almost always without pictures. If the drawings and occasionally was applied, were presented, usually in the form of simple circles. Moreover, Vahe have shamans were like diamonds ket, nizhneobsky Khanty - Nenets, in many places Bubnov did not exist. V. N. Chernetsov made an interesting point that Ob Ugrians was never developed forms of shamanism, drawing attention to the fact that their extremely developed folklore not appear tambourine. Also didn't have any distinct features of the shaman's costume. But in the lexicon of the Khanty is the term used to denote the person who beats the drum that summons spirits-helpers and heals people. This term - "YEL", "YEL-TA-ku", which literally means "people practice witchcraft". People asked or even ordered the shaman to divine when the need arose. To refuse he had no right, for their own spirits-helpers of the shaman, in this case, out disobedience and ruined shaman.
Your browser may not support display of this image.This is one of the features of the Khanty shamanism. Here the shaman is completely under the control of the society, instead of standing over him and not command people like other peoples. Khanty shaman all provided himself with hunting and fishing, and had no privileges. After the ritual was a slight compensation in the form of a pouch or tube. The Khanty shaman was not a carrier of the ideology of society, but only reflect it. The main responsibility of the shaman was the treatment. Here Khanty also had its peculiarities. In some groups it was believed that shamans are not treated quite. Health depends on Torum, and the shaman can only ask him to help release abducted by an evil spirit soul. Tambourine in this case need only to give the words the volume and force.
The older generation Khanty retains many traditional beliefs and cults. Traditional oral folk arts presents myths, epic heroic tales, fairy tales, mysteries, historical tales. They tell about the origin of phratries, totemic ancestors, intergeneric military engagements, and other events of the historical past. In the decorative arts attracts trim garment beads, metal badges, applique products from birch bark, weaving, bone carving.
The musical culture of the Khanty people insufficiently studied. It is known that the performers were called following main categories: Mons (tale, story), ar (song), puthur (story), mansueti (mystery), which are divided into subcategories. The latter can be correlated with the adopted in the study of folklore classification of genres. Allocated sub-categories historic, or sacred stories, songs (i.e. myths), heroic songs, tales and ancient stories (epic, legend). The concept of "Household story (bilicki)" and "household tale" largely coincide in folk and scientific classification. According folklore traditions of the Khanty, the same plot of the myth or legend could be fulfilled either in song or prose, either in the form of metrical prose. Myths spoke rarely, usually at public celebrations (for example, myths about the origin of the bear on bear holiday). The sacral part of the myth was forbidden for women and children. A mystery to the representatives of foreign fratrie remained a legend about the origin of the ancestor, and private matriliny rites. Heroic songs were only a few days a year for religious festivals, weddings. Heroic tales or tales you could hear in the evening, during rest. According to some information, to tell stories during the day was forbidden. But still, it was practiced, it was believed, for example, that the tale shortens long rides on the boat. The Khanty were not professional performers, but were outstanding storytellers and singers, often men.
Widespread had plucked stringed musical instruments: five-stringed zither, 9-or 13-year-stringed harp, as well as one or two-stringed bow instrument. Strings for all instruments were made from elk tendons. In recent decades, the Khanty formed a professional painting and literature. Famous are the Khanty writers A. Tarkhanov, E. Aipin, R. * Rugin, artists G. Raichev, V. Igoshev, etc.
Muncie, (self, "man") are an indigenous people in Western Siberia, the size of which on the population census of 2002 is 11 573 people In the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug lives 77 % Muncie. They mainly settled in three areas of the County — Berezovsky, contentcom and October. In other districts their number does not exceed a few dozen people. In other regions, for example, in the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous region, home to only about 200 Muncie, in Sverdlovsk region - 155.
Until the early 20th century Russians called Muncie Voguls, and some groups — Ostyaks. With Khanty they share a common name – "the Ob Ugrians", unlike the Hungarians – Ugric peoples of the Danube, with which both of these people are related and are part of the Ugric subgroup of the Finno-Ugric languages, Uralic family.). Stand out ethnographic groups: Northern, southern, Eastern and Western. Language and traditional culture are now preserved mainly in the North (Sosva-Lapin) and Eastern (Konda) Mansi.
The main occupations of the people of Muncie – hunting and fishing, partly reindeer herding. On the Ob and in the lower reaches of the Northern Sosva the predominant occupation is fishing, and the inhabitants of the upper reaches of the rivers are predominantly engaged in the hunt for fur and hoofed animals, some go to the Ob for seasonal fishing.
In phonetics, morphology and vocabulary of the Mansi language is close to Khanty. Literary language is based on the Sosva dialect. Writing functions since 1931, first in Latin characters, 1937 on the basis of the Cyrillic alphabet. In 1980 Mansi script was reformed in the alphabet has introduced special marks for long vowels. According to experts, the partial reform Mansi graphics was one of the most successful. She has kept for native Mansi the opportunity to use previously published editions and does not require retraining of personnel, reprints of literature. Native Mansi believe 3.1 thousand people, or 49.5 % Muncie. In Mansi language exist press (publishes the journal "Ugra", once in 2 weeks produced the newspaper "Louima seriphos"), broadcasting, every week there is a special TV program. Mansi is now being taught in elementary school, in the Ugra University, the Herzen. Herzen in St. Petersburg. Widely known in the Russian Federation are Mansi writers J. Shestakov, Vakhrusheva, A. Tarkhanov, N. Even-Shamatov. However, the original literature in Mansi language, obtained the rapid development in 50-60-ies, needs a new qualitative development.
Folklore Muncie is quite complicated, for example, in the question of its genre. Not always scientific definition of the genre coincides with national or literal
the translation corresponds to the true content. At Muncie, the same text may have different names, depending on where and for what purpose it is pronounced, can be told in prose or intoned or sung. A special method of performance texts, characteristic Ugric folklore, it is believed itemizedoverlay prose. If text is given magical significance, he says, often with musical and dance accompaniment, in normal circumstances it is executed in prose.
The basic principle of the division of folklore genres – the sacred and the ordinary. Sacred genres are mythological tales and legends, telling about the creation of the world, mythological "bear song" ("PU IPA-Arah", "UY-aryg"), executed on a bear feast, spells, prayers-conspiracies, East. tales. Heroic and historical tales sometimes are allocated in special group – Targyn-mouth. Marginal position among the sacred genres is the type stories bylichek and fables about encounters with spirits mankame and MIS, spirits of water (Vit-hon) and forests (Compa-LEng). Sacred genres more often performed after sunset
the sun, mostly. late autumn and winter, were confined to holidays and rituals. Some texts were forbidden to hear the "uninitiated" – children, women, representatives of other phratries or alien people. To the common genres of folklore are stories about the recent past, lyrical songs and tales, which lost sacred significance. A kind of genre are mysteries. A large group of household tales, borrowed primarily from the Russians; they usually retained the basic plot, but change the details. Lyric of the song existed in the form of improvisation, describing a particular situation or the mood of the performer.
The first recorded Mansi folklore were made in the mid-nineteenth century (1843-1844) Hungarian scholar A. Brig, but death prevented him to continue the study, and collected materials for a long time remained undeciphered. Only in 1888-1889 to decrypt them and further study of folklore Muncie Hungarian Academy of Sciences sent an expedition B. munkácsi. The result of his work was the publication of 4 volumes Mansi folklore texts with translation into Hungarian and 3 volumes
review. In the 2nd half. Nineteenth century Mansi folklore collected A. Alquist, S. K. Patkanov, in the early twentieth century – A. Kannisto that published in the future 7-volume edition of Mansi folklore (7th volume of the dictionary), still remains the most valuable source. In the study Mansi folklore, a significant contribution was made by Soviet researchers V. N. Chernetsov (recordings 1927-1938), I. I. Avdeev, A. N. Balandin (1933-1934). Since the 1940s the collection and study of folklore began to actively engage representatives of national intelligence – A. N. Painting, E. A. Kazakova, Yu. Shatalov and others Among modern researchers the most famous ethnographers N. In. Lukin, V. V. Napol'skikh, philologists M. P. Balandin, E. I. Romandia.
Music Muncie represented by ritual chants and instrumental tunes bear festival, shamanic rituals, as well as a narrative lyric and epic genres. Genetically it is akin to music Khanty and works closely with music tundra Nenets, Komi-Zyryans, Siberian Tatars and Russians. Shamanic music – Cayn ereg (sat.), CIH era (South) – is a personal form of musical communication with the spirits and contains emotionally intense waspaloy, spontaneously improvised melody. Shamanic chants are accompanied by the beats of the tambourine.
Instrumental music Muncie presents a diverse repertoire – from short signals on Makkah and sound toys to large-scale instrumental suites. In General, instrumental music is a kind of parallel festive, shamanic vocal and lyrical music and performs in relation to the last echelonedwow acoustic function. The most structurally complex instruments Muncie are: 9-string corner (in the form of a Swan, a crane or goose) harp Tarig, cheese, IIV, 5-string long zither sunkfiltp (sat.), sa ncal tap (South); 1-2-string bow box-shaped lute, nine IIV (sat.), kernahan (South), which is mostly performed lyrical music. Meet the oldest chordophone: tendon string-string tan, one end held by the hand and another in his mouth; musical bow of Govt, the shaft being held in the teeth, and the bowstring hit by an arrow n al. Also used the "female" harp – Tumen (sat.), Tamron (South).
The collecting and study of music of Mansi people doing I. I. Avdeev, A. M. Eisenstadt, G. I. Grace, I. A. Bogdanov-Brodsky, N. In. Vladykina-Baczynska, A. O. Väisänen, E. V. Gippius, V. Kalman, A. Kannisto, K. F. Karjalainen, K. Lazar, M. Lyman, N. In. Lukin, I. Ruutel, H. Silver, Z. P. Sokolova, G. E., Soldatov, Yu. I. Chaikin, P. E. Shishkin, V. Stanic, etc.
To preserve the original sound tracks used audio format 24 bit 96 kHz. 1 minute this mono recording is on the hard drive of the computer more than 17 megabytes. For comparison, 1 minute recording in mp3 format has a size of about 1 megabyte.