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The Finno-Ugric collections in St. Petersburg and Vienna Phonogrammarchiv

  / Read the report at the scientific-practical conference "national digital sound Depository – technology safeguarding of the audio heritage of Russia" 28-29 August 2008, St. Petersburg, IRLI (Pushkin House). /

 

V. N. Denisov

Folklore collection of the phonogram archive of the Pushkin House, a unique collection of sound recordings and manuscripts that have preserved rare specimens of oral tradition, are of great value to the history of world culture. That is why by UNESCO since 2001 the historical collections of the phonogram archive of the Pushkin House (35 000 records from 1889 to 1955, 500 hours of playing time) were included in the programme memory of the World" ("Memory of the World").

It is believed that the earliest Phonographic records that are stored in the funds of the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature, were made in the early 1900-ies known researcher V. I. Jochelson, who recorded on the phonograph folklore of the Yakuts, Koryaks, Itelmens, evens and Aleuts. This may also include the oldest collections of E. E. Linev gathering in 1900-1912, folklore Russians, Ukrainians, Slovaks, Croatians, Slovenes and other Nations. In 1910-ies, the Evenki folklore recorded Sternberg, S. M. Shirokogorov, E. N. Shirokogorov, collections which are also very valuable contributions to the funds The phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature.

The earliest records of the funds of the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature on the peoples of the European North and West Siberia are records of the folklore of Russian, Komi and Nenets, collected by G. D. Fedorov in 1914, and record V. I. Anuchina 1908 relating to ketam and Selkups. A rich collection of Phonographic records of folklore of the peoples of southern Siberia and Altai 1910 belongs to A. V. Anokhin. Most valuable are also memorial collection, reflecting the results of research pre-revolutionary collectors, such as S. E. Malov, S. D. Maynagashev, I. I. Suslov, M. K. Azadovsky, A. N. Lipsky, J. Strozeski and other scientists1.

Currently, the Fund phonogram archive includes more than 150 000 units, although, in the opinion of the staff, Russia's oldest sound archive, this figure is rather conditional, since after the 1990s, were brought here a large number of collections from other regions of Russia. Says it all suggests that along with the extensive records of Russian folklore that make up the bulk of the collections, it presents sound materials and other nationalities living on the territory of Russia and abroad. Thus, the specificity of the phonogram archive of the Pushkin The house is in the huge variety of its funds generated for nearly a hundred years.

The Finno-Ugric collections of the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature. The beginning entries of the Finno-Ugric collections was founded a well-known collector and researcher G. D. Fedorov, November 4, 1914 recorded on the phonograph a conversation between two of the Komi-Zyryans in the town of Izhma Pustozersk parish Pechersk district of the Arkhangelsk province (now Naryan-Mar district). In subsequent years, the Finno-Ugric collections of the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature was supplemented with the records of various scholars-gatherers, and as a result wide-ranging linguistic and ethnographic expeditions. In this regard, for example, it is worth mentioning famous Russian folklorist academician Y. M. Sokolov and member-correspondents of the D. V. Bubrega, a remarkable academic vinoprovoda, on whose initiative in the mid 20-ies of the last century were organized several major expeditions to the territory populated by Finno-Ugric peoples. At that time there only was the process of the formation of literary languages of these people, so it was important to define and describe the dialects and subdialects, which could become in the future. As a result of the efforts of these scientists expeditions were sent to Mordovia (1927 and 1928), Udmurtia (1929 and 1930), Karelia (1930) 2. These expeditions not only gathered a wealth of factual material, but also helped to interest in the work of local scientific personnel. Thus, for example, in the collections of the phonogram archive was 37 Ponomaryov recorded talented Udmurt scholar, poet and ethnographer P. K. Chainikov (literary pseudonym - Kusebay Gerd), which was one of the participants of these expeditions on the territory of Udmurtia.

In the 1930-ies in the Folklore section of the Institute of anthropology, Ethnography and archaeology under the supervision of the famous musicologist E. V. Gippius, at the time a custodian United phonogram archive began work on collecting folksong collection "800 songs of the peoples of the USSR". In the course of working on this collection were organized expedition into the territory of Udmurtia and neighboring regions with a dense population of the Udmurts. The first expedition was headed by J. A. Eshpai, Soviet composer, folklorist, one of the founders of the Mari professional music, a collector of folklore 1917. He was a research scientist Mari Institute of language, literature and history (Yoshkar-Ola). Worked with him M. P. Petrov, later known Udmurt writer, poet, playwright, member of the USSR Union of writers, who helped in the description and interpretation of the collected material. The party of the second expedition was a researcher and then head. the arts sector of the Udmurt scientific research Institute of language and literature B. A. Pchelnikov.

According to the results of work on the collection of E. W. and Z. Gippius, V. Ewald were prepared for publication the first six volumes of the series: Belarusian, Udmurt, Chuvash, Ossetian, Karelian and Komi 3. But unfortunately, for various reasons in those years was published only one collection of Belarusian – 4. The materials on the folklore of other peoples and remained unpublished. Subsequently, only the Udmurt collection, restored by the archive materials M. G. Khrushcheva and R. A. Churakova, was published in 1989 in Izhevsk 5. However, work on the compilation ""800 songs of the peoples of the USSR" allowed to collect significant manuscripts and Udmurt folklore material, which is stored in the audio archive.

In the framework of this work was assembled a wealth of material on the Karelian folklore and a few lesser – Komi folklore. This is only part of the examples were formed folklore collections of the Pushkin House. The materials on the folklore of other Finno-Ugric peoples in various ways into the funds of the phonogram archive. But even a preliminary description of these collections based on the directory says about their significant volume.

Here is a brief description of the Finno-Ugric collections from the holdings of the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature (the Pushkin House).

PV – recording on wax cylinders;

MF – tape recording

Mordovian language:

1. Collection No. 062 /PV 2191-2204/. Collector D. In Bubry recorded in 1927 in Mordovia; left wax cylinders – 14, number of records on the rollers – 14. Ceremonial songs.
2. Collection No. 136 /PV 4231-4279/. Collectors N. N. Rehovoth and I. V. Usatov recorded in Mordovia in 1937; the number of wax cylinders – 49, number of records in the bolsters– 173. The Erzya and Moksha tunes.
3. Collection No. 375 /MT 2028-2039/. Collectors S. V. Frolov and A. V. Osipov, recorded in 1978 in Kuibyshev and Tartu (Estonia); the number of tape reels or cassettes – 12, number of records in them – 111. Songs of all genres.
4. Collection No. 376 /MT 2040-2042/. Collectors A. D. Trinity and V. P. Schiff, recorded in 1982 in Leningrad (performers from Kuibyshev); number of tape reels or cassettes – 3, number of records in them – 45. Songs of all genres.
5. Collection No. 379 /MT 2125-2137/. Collector S. V. Frolov, recorded in 1982 in Kuibyshev; left tape reels or cassettes – 13, number of records in them – 104. Songs of all genres.

 

Mari language:

1. Collection No. 139 /PV 4345-4357/. Collector J. A. Eshpai, recorded in 1937 on the territory of the Mari ASSR; left wax cylinders – 13, number of records on them – 84. Songs ritual, lyrical, movement and tunes.
2. Collection No. 156-a /PV 4629-4650/. Collector V. F. Coucal, recorded in 1937, Kirov oblast on the territory of N-Turyanskogo, Sernursky, Urzhum and Surminski areas; number of wax cylinders – 22, number of records on them 77. Songs with movement, tunes.
3. Collection No. 156-b /PV 5380-5584/. Collector V. F. Coucal recorded in 1937; the number of wax cylinders – 5, number of records on 12. Songs.
4. Collection No. 192 /PV 5152-5155/. Collector J. A. Eshpai, recorded in 1937 in the Mari ASSR; left wax cylinders – 4, number of records on them – 18. Songs with movement and tunes.
5. Collection No. 200 /PV 5278-5282/. Collector V. F. Coucal, recorded in 1937 in Leningrad from Mari; left wax cylinders 5, the number of records on them – 19. Songs of all genres.

 

Udmurt language:

1. Collection No. 138 /PV 4310-4344/. Collectors J. A. Eshpai and M. P. Petrov, recorded in 1937 in the Udmurt ASSR, Tatar ASSR and the Kirov region; number of wax cylinders 35, the number of records on them – 152. Songs of ritual, movement and tunes.
2. Collection No. 141 /PV 4383-4398/. Collector V. A. Pchelnikov, recorded in 1937 in the Udmurt ASSR; left wax cylinders 16, the number of records on them – 66. Songs ritual, lyrical, movement and tunes.
3. Collection No. 210 /PV 5433-5434/. The collector Z. V. Ewald, recorded in 1941 in Leningrad in the audio archive from V. I. Altarev; left wax cylinders 2, the number of records on them – 13. Songs of ritual and lyrical.
4. Collection No. 240 /PV 6010-6046/. Collector Kusebay Gerd (K. P. Dummies), recorded in 1929 in the Udmurt ASSR; left wax cylinders 37, the number of records on them – 59. The collection was acquired by the phonogram archive in 1986 from the Udmurt scientific research Institute of language and literature. Songs of ritual and movement.
5. Collection No. 432 /PV 6135-6154/. Collectors L. A. Bachinsky and M. N. Byvaltsev, recorded in 1937 in the Udmurt ASSR on-site Glazovsky district; number of wax cylinders 21, the number of records on them – 30. The collection was acquired in the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature in 1986 from Moscow State Conservatory.

 

Komi language:

1. Collection No. 027 /PV 1160-1178/. Collector G. D. Fedorov, recorded in 1914 in Pustozersk parish (town of Izhma) of the Pechersk district of the Arkhangelsk province; number of wax cylinders 1, the number of records on them – 1. A conversation between two men, the same collection contains the records of the Nenets and Russian folklore. Wax cylinders were transferred to the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature from the Museum of anthropology and Ethnography in 1931
2. Collection No. 291 /MT 610-630/. Collectors L. I. Emelyanov, T. I. Ornatsky, Vladimir Korguzalov recorded in 1961 in the Arkhangelsk region and the Komi ASSR; folklore of Russian and Komi; left tape coils - 21, number of records on them – 182. Songs of all genres.

 

Karelian, Vepsian and Finnish languages:

1. Collection No. 142 /PV 4399-4423/. Collector S. D. Magid, recorded in 1937 in Karelia, folklore Karel and Veps; left wax cylinders 25, the number of records on them – 83. Songs ritual, lyrical, movement and tunes.
2. Collection No. 187 /PV 5099-5112/. Collector S. D. Magid, recorded in 1937 in Karelia, the folklore of the Karelians, Finns and Veps; left wax cylinders 14, the number of records on them – 59. Songs ritual, lyrical, movement and tunes.
3. Collection No. 188 /PV 5124-5127/. The collector Z. V. Ewald, recorded in 1936 in Leningrad from Russians and Veps; left wax cylinders 4, the number of records on them – 9. Songs with movement.
4. Collection No. 201 /PV 5288-5298/. Collector P. G. Shiryaev, recorded in 1936 in the territory of Karelia, folklore Karel; left wax cylinders 16, the number of records on them – 89. Songs ritual, lyrical, movement and tunes.
5. Collection No. 202 /PV 5299-5303/. Collector V. Chistov, written in 1936-38, in Karelia, folklore Karel; left wax cylinders 5, the number of records on them – 23. Songs ritual, lyrical, moving.
6. Collection No. 324 /MT 1094-1100/. Collectors A. D. Troitskaya, S. V. Frolov, A. V. Osipov, recorded in 1976 on the territory of Karelia, Arkhangelsk, Vologda, Murmansk, Smolensk, Russian folklore, Karel and Veps; left tape reels or cassettes - 6, number of records 69. Songs ritual, lyrical, moving.
7. Collection No. 326 /MT 1311-1316/. Collectors L. F. Morochove, G. V. Matveev, A. N. Rozov, recorded in 1977 on the territory of Karelia folklore of the Karelians, Finns and Veps; left tape reels or cassettes 14, the number of records on them – 59. Songs ritual, lyrical, movement and tunes.
8. Collection No. 383 /MT 2170-2176/. Collector L. M. Kershner, recorded in 1982 on the territory of Karelia, the folklore of the Karelians and Russians; the number of tape reels or cassettes 7, the number of records on them – 10. Songs ritual, lyrical, movement and tunes.

 

Estonian language:

1. Collection No. 226 /PV 5761/. Collectors N. A. Kotikov, A. G. Kudashkina recorded in 1946 in Pskov oblast on the territory of Verbascose, Marjamaa, folklore of Estonians; left wax cylinders 1, the number of records on them – 6. Tunes.
2. Collection No. 279 /MT 266-271/. Collector V. F. Sokolov, recorded in 1957 in the Pskov region, Russian folklore, Latvians and Estonians; left tape coils - 6, number of records on them – 68. Tunes.
3. Collection No. 326 /MT 1311-1316/. Collectors L. F. Morochove, G. V. Matveev, A. N. Rozov, recorded in 1977 in Leningrad, the folklore of Estonians and Russians; the number of tape reels or cassettes - 6, number of records on them – 83. Songs ritual, lyrical, movement and tunes.

 

Ob-Ugric languages:

Khanty language

1. Collection No. 091 /PV 3247-3248/. The collector is unknown, the time and place of the recording of the song Khanty folklore also unknown; Qty wax cylinders 25, the number of records on them – 83. Transferred to the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature from the Museum of anthropology and Ethnography in 1931
2. Collection No. 124 /PV 3993-4018/. Collector E. V. Gippius, recorded in 1935 in Leningrad from students of the Institute of Northern peoples (Khanty, Mansi, Udege, evens); number of wax cylinders – 26, number of records on them – 67. Songs of ritual and tunes.
3. Collection No. 127 /PV 4064-4093/. Collector V. K. Steinitz recorded in 1935 on-site status-Vogul national Okrug (Khanty-Mansiysk region) (currently Khanty-Mansi national district); number of wax cylinders – 30, number of records on them – 44. Epic, song, ritual, movement and tunes.
4. Collection No. 133 /PV 5128-5132/. Collector E. V. Gippius, written in 1934-35 in Leningrad from students of the Institute of Northern peoples (Khanty, Mansi, Udege, evens); number of wax cylinders – 5, number of records on them – 10. Prose and songs.
5. Collection No. 268 /MT 227 to 229/. Collectors B. M. Dobrovolsky, V. V. Korguzalov recorded in 1955-56, in Leningrad in the premises of the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature from the students of the faculties of the peoples of the far North of the Herzen state pedagogical University them. A. Gertsen (Khanty, Mansi, Nenets, Yakuts, the Udege, evens, Evenks and other peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East); left tape reels or cassettes - 3, number of records on them – 72. Songs.

 

Mansi

1. Collection No. 124 /PV 3993-4018/. Collector E. V. Gippius, recorded in 1935 in Leningrad from students of the Institute of Northern peoples (Khanty, Mansi, Udege, evens); number of wax cylinders – 26, number of records on them – 67. Songs of ritual and tunes.
2. Collection No. 133 /PV 5128-5132/. Collector E. V. Gippius, written in 1934-35 in Leningrad from students of the Institute of Northern peoples (Khanty, Mansi, Udege, evens); number of wax cylinders – 5, number of records on them – 10. Prose and songs.
3. Collection No. 268 /MT 227 to 229/. Collectors B. M. Dobrovolsky, V. V. Korguzalov recorded in 1955-56, in Leningrad in the premises of the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature from the students of the faculties of the peoples of the far North of the Herzen state pedagogical University them. A. Gertsen (Khanty, Mansi, Nenets, Yakuts, the Udege, evens, Evenks and other peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East); left tape reels or cassettes - 3, number of records on them – 72. Songs.
4. Collection No. 427 /PV 6047-6054/. Collector V. Senkevich (Sienkiewicz-Gudkov) recorded in 1934 in birch Berezovsky district of the Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug, folklore Muncie; left wax cylinders – 8, number of records on them – 11. Song ritual. Transferred to the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature from the study of folk music of the Moscow state Conservatory in 1986.
5. Collection No. 437 /PV 6201-6232/. Collectors L. A. Ermakov, N. M. Bachinsky (vladykina-baczynska), recorded in 1938 on the territory of Khanty-Mansi Autonomous Okrug; Mansi folklore; left wax cylinders – 32, number of records on them 77. Songs of ritual and tunes. Transferred to the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature from the study of folk music of the Moscow state Conservatory in 1986.

 

However, rich sound and manuscripts collections of the phonogram archive of the still insufficiently known in the art, because the directories are not fully published. In addition, among the collections received in the phonogram archive in recent years, can also be folkloric and linguistic records of the Finno-Ugric peoples that remained to be searched, processed and catalogued with the help of experts in these languages. At the same time you want to spend a great deal of work on transfer of significant collections from magnetic tapes to modern digital format, organize digitization the manuscript Fund and implement a number of other important activities to the audio archive has continued to occupy a worthy place among similar institutions in the world.

Vienna Phonogram Archive. As for the Vienna phonogram archive of the Austrian Academy of Sciences, the institution is considered the oldest sound archive in the world. It was founded in 1899 on the initiative of members of the Imperial Academy of Sciences Ludwig Boltzmann (Ludwig Boltzmann) and Sigmund Exner (Sigmund Exner) (first Director of the phonogram archive, physiologist, University of Vienna) as a special archive to store audio content, organization, and systematic records. Following similar institutions, according to experts of the Vienna phonogram archive steel sound archives in Berlin (1900) and St. Petersburg (1902). (Although specialists RAS is considered to be the basis of the last – 1909). Scientific and technical staff of the Vienna phonogram archive actively participate in the work of various international organizations, for example, IASA (International Associati on of Sound and Audiovisual Archives), AES (Audio Engineering Society, ARSC (Association of Recorded Sound Collections) 6. It has long been established Vienna phonogram archive works closely with the sound archives of Berlin, Zurich, Amsterdam and Zagreb. In addition, employees are widely represented in the audio archive IASA technical Committee, which last 25 years pays special attention to the technical aspects of recording in the field, rewriting, archival collections, and the preservation of media. By the way, the current Director of the Vienna phonogram archive Dr Dietrich schüller, very well known and respected in the archival world, the scientist, is the honorary Chairman of the Technical Committee of IASA.

In recent years, the Vienna special attention was paid to technology overwriting with wax cylindrical rollers of a type III on a special phonograph, designed chief engineer Franz Lechleitner (Franz Lechleitner). With our unique equipment and technology, Vienna phonogram archive ready to help colleagues from St. Petersburg, Ljubljana, Riga, Slovakia to work to preserve their historical collections. By the way, modern phonograph, designed by the Vienna experts, was presented in the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature. The Vienna phonogram archive is always ready to help colleagues archives technical and methodological councils, and to provide the necessary equipment for field recordings.

Historical collection. Currently the historical collections of the Vienna phonogram archive consist of 64,000 records the total number of sound around 9 600 hours. The historical collections include all recordings made from 1899 to 1950. All of them included in the UNESCO programme "memory of the world". The most significant are the following collections:

Rudolf Pöch: Papua New-Guinea, 1904-1905, Namibia/Botswana 1907-1909;

Rudolf Trebitsch: Celtic minorities, Basques and Inuits, 1906 – 1912;

Josef Subak: Sephardic chants, 1908;

Adolf Dirr: Caucasian languages, 1909;

Abraham Zwi Idelsohn: Synagogal chant, Christian liturgy and Palestinian music,

Jerusalem 1910-1913

Robert Lach, Rudolf Pöch et al.: "Gesänge Russischer Kriegsgefangener" (songs of the various Peoples of the Russian Empire: Caucasian, Turcic, Finn-Ugrian and other ethnic groups), 1915-1918 7.

These historical collections are of great interest for science, but for us, the representatives of the Russian Federation, of special interest are the records of prisoners of war from Russia, made by the group under the leadership of the Austrian composer Robert Lakha (Robert Lach) and the collector and researcher of Rudolf pécs (Rudolf Pöch) in 1915-1918 8 years. In subsequent years, all the recordings were carefully transcribed, described and published from 1917 to 1940, in Vienna and in Leipzig the book series. To decrypt these collections attracted the best specialists from the European academies of Sciences, mainly from Hungarian Academy of Sciences. For example, in the transcript of records of prisoners of war-Udmurts (25 informants), done mainly in Esterhaza camp, and translated them into German was involved a famous Hungarian linguist, academician Bernat munkácsi (in German writing – Bernhard Munkácsi), who in 1885-ies of the XIX century at the age of 25 years came to Udmurts with expedition 9. As for the records of the Komi-Zyryans and the Komi-Permyaks, then decoding them of his talented pupil, later a prominent Finno-proved Professor David Raphael Fokos-Fuchs (Raphael Fuchs), also a Hungarian nationality. Records of the Mordvinians, published in 1933, described and deciphered Ernst levy (Ernst Lewy), and records of Mari processed Eden Beek (Öden Beke). In the same manner have been described, transcribed and published the collection of records of prisoners of war of other nationalities and ethnic groups of the Russian Empire: the Abkhazians, Ossetians, Georgians, Mingrelians, Svans (1931), Bashkirs (1939), Tatars (1939), Chuvash (1940).

In order to provide access to historical collections 1899 – 1950, to the 100-year anniversary of the Vienna phonogram archive was decided on the gradual publication of collections on CD-ROM, together with their full description. Of these published collections in the mid 90-ies of the last century was presented in the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature. But the collection of records of prisoners of war among them was not, because by that time she had not yet been issued.

With regard to the interpretation and description of these collections, they are mostly known in a series of publications, which have already been mentioned. In addition, since 1990 the Vienna phonogram archive there is an electronic database of all collections. Each entry is accompanied by a "Protocol" which includes information about the informant, the gatherer, the content of the record (transcript), the technical characteristics of the equipment on which to carry out the recording of the original and re-recorded on new media in the new format. There is also a separate 4-volume catalogue of all collections.

The Finno-Ugric collections of the Vienna phonogram archive are unique and are of great interest to specialists in the language and Ethnography of the Finno-Ugric peoples. Moreover, it is right to say that in Russian sound archives it is difficult to find such an early recording (1915-1918,) such high quality sound with detailed transcripts. All said again speaks of the necessity of the introduction of these priceless materials in the scientific revolution.

References

1. Collection of peoples of the North in the phonogram archive of the Pushkin House / A. A. Burykin, A. . Girfanova, A. Y. Kostrov, Y. I. Marchenko, N. D. Svetozarov, V. P. Schiff. SPb.: The philological faculty of St. Petersburg state University , 2005. – 132 p.
2. More information about the results of these expeditions, see: Issues of dialectology and history of the Udmurt language / Collection of scientific works. – Izhevsk: WIEL UB RAS, 1992. – 148 p.
3. The materials and articles. To the 100 anniversary since the birth of E. V. Gippius. Moscow, Publishing House "Composer", 2003. - P. 10, 54.
4. Gippius, E. V., Z. V. Ewald Isn the Belarusian people. T. I. Minsk, 1940.
5. Gippius, E. V., Z. V. Ewald Udmurt folk songs. Izhevsk, 1989, (prepared for publication by R. A. Churakova and M. Khrushcheva).
6. Dietrich Schüller: The Vienna Phonogrammarchiv 1899 - 1981. In: Recorded Sound 81 Journal of the British Institute of Recorded Sound, Jan. 1982, 33-40
7. The Phonogrammarchiv of the Austrian Academy of Sciences. In: The World of Music, XXIX /1, 1987, 87-91.
8. Robert Lach. Gesänge russischer Kriegsgefangener. I B. Finnisch-ugrische Vӧlker. 1. Abteilung. Wotjakische, syrjänische und permiakische Gesänge. Transkription und Übersetzung der wotjakischen Texte von Prof. Dr. Bernhard Munkácsi, der syrjänischen und permiakischen von Dr. Raphael Fuchs, Wien und Leipzig. 1926.
9. Kelmakov V. K. the Word about Bernat munkácsy, the researcher Udmurts /Hungarian scientists and Perm Philology. A collection of articles. Ustinov, 1987. Pp. 12-24.
 

Interesting fact:

Khanty (self, Hanta — people), the people of the Ugric group. Live by the Ob, the Irtysh and their tributaries in the Yamalo-Nenets and Khanty-Mansi Autonomous districts of Tyumen region, and also in the Tomsk region. Speak Khanty language. There are three ethnographic groups: Northern, southern and Eastern. South (Irtysh) Khanty mixed with Russian and Tatar populations. Features of the traditional culture of the 19th century saved the West and especially the Northern Khanty (shelter, clothing, transportation, art). Ethnogenesis Khanty began at the end of the 1st Millennium BC on the basis of mixing of natives and newcomers Ugric tribes (Ust-poljska culture). Khanty kindred Muncie.