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Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug

The Arctic face of Russia, the energetic heart of the state, the edge of the romantics and enthusiasts - not once refer to the Yamal Peninsula. All these determine the fair and appropriate. Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug is today one of the most advanced in the economic and social regions of the Russian Federation.

Located in the North of Western Siberia, covering an area of 750 thousand square kilometers, the district conceals in its bosom huge reserves of hydrocarbons. Foothills of the Polar Urals are storehouses of ore resources. At the same time, the Yamal - owner of the most numerous in Russia herds of domesticated reindeer, numbering more than 600 thousand heads. In rivers and lakes Autonomous Okrug fattens the world's largest herd of white fish. The basis of fish is fish, which at one time was called 'Royal' is whitefish and white salmon.

The population of the Autonomous Okrug is more than 525 thousand people. More than 7 percent of them are indigenous peoples of the North: the Nenets, Khanty and Selkup. To support indigenous peoples to preserve and develop their traditional way of life in the district provides special programs and trust funds provided in the district budget.
Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug today is a stable, dynamically developing region, where laid a solid Foundation for socio-economic development, allowing to build ambitious plans for the future. Developed in the administration of the Autonomous region development strategy Yamal 2020 links the development of fuel-energy complex with the formation of new sectors of the regional economy, necessary for modern life.

The backbone of the economy of Yamal, the basic industry, is the fuel industry, which accounts for about 95% of the total industrial production. For 2005 within the County produced more than 39 million tons of oil, about 11 million tons of condensate and more than 561 billion cubic meters of gas. It is strategically important for the country's hydrocarbons produced by experts from 39 companies on 79 the Yamal fields.

Of course, the main share of gas production falls, and in the future will have, a subsidiary of OJSC 'Gazprom', which provided last year's delivery of more than 499 billion cubic meters of natural gas.

Still, the pace and scale of development of resource base of hydrocarbons in the region are the highest among Russian regions and CIS countries and we have every reason to further growth.

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug was and still is a major gas-producing region of Russia and the world in General.

The History Of Yamal

The first mention of the Yamal Peninsula.

The first information about the Yamal land of indigenous peoples from time immemorial have lived in it - Nenets and Khanty, refer to the XI century. However, the Novgorod merchants penetrated on the edge of the Earth (it is translated from the Nenets word Yamal) before. In the initial submissions of Novgorod the riches of the Northern lands and its people had a lot of fantastic. Travelers were told that squirrels and deer there fall to the ground like rain from the clouds. 'Native menagerie', 'pantry soft stuff' attracted people shopping and Novgorod rati. With 1187 lower Ob ' was included in 'the parish of subjects' Novgorod but after his fall passed to the princes of Moscow, the titles of which 1502 added 'Obdorsk and Ugra'.

In 1592 the king Fedor outfitted hike for the final conquest of the land 'the great Obi'. In 1595 one of the Cossack units built strengthening under the name of Obdorsk (now the capital of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous district, Salekhard). In 1601 river Basin jail appeared Mangazeya, which became the principal base yasak operations up to Lena and Yenisei rivers. The inclusion of the Northern lands of the strong Russian state had a progressive significance. The establishment of strong economic ties with the peoples of the Ob North contributed to the growth of the power of Russia. The flow of furs brought to the Treasury the additional income increased the trade turnover with foreign countries. In 1660 Siberian Treasury gave more than 600 thousand rubles, or about one-third of budget revenues of the state. Obdorsk long remained the last Russian settlement on the Ob the North.

Gradually the population grew, changed the administrative division. The region has started a broad fur trade, North white salmon, mammoth bones, fish glue, bird feather, with birch chaga, boats, fur, clothing and other goods. It was promoted by the famous Obdorsk fair. In January-February there came the Nenets and Khanty, merchants gathered Tobolsk, Yeniseisk, Arkhangelsk provinces. The monetary unit was a white Fox. Fair turnover of capital was one of the first in the Tobolsk province.

By the early twentieth century from Obdorsk annually exported to the markets of up to 200 thousand pounds of fish and about 50 thousand of animal furs (Fox, Fox, squirrel, ermine, etc.).

Recent past

Along with the increasing economic development of the Ob North remained the edge of utter cultural backwardness. Old lag here exacerbated the effects of mobilization and direct looting during the civil war. The initial activities of the new authorities was the organization of food supply, trade, Northern fisheries. Were opened trading posts in Yar-sale, Shchuchye, Churascaria, etc. Socio-cultural challenges include raising the General educational level of people - the eradication of illiteracy; the organization of the school system, the first centers of culture - village reading rooms, people's homes; the creation of the first hospitals and first-aid stations.

December 10, 1930 the Presidium of the all-Russian Central Executive Committee adopted a resolution 'On the organization of national associations in the areas of settlement of the small peoples of the North'. Among eight new national districts of the RSFSR was formed in Ural region Yamal (Nenets) district centered in the village of Obdorsk. June 20, 1933 Obdorsk renamed in Salekhard settlement, and the village Council was reorganized into the village.

According to the Soviet census in 1939 lived in the district 45734 person, including 15348 nomads.

Main industries of the district in pre-war years remained fishery and reindeer herding, grew at a high rate of harvesting furs - 10 times from 1931 to 1940, the year. After the formation of the County began to develop a whole new industry - crop. In polar region began to grow potatoes, vegetables and root crops.

In 1931-1932 on the Yamal Peninsula appeared first planes, and in 1937 was a direct of aviawest with Omsk.

Special attention was paid to public education. In 1940, 46 schools in the district were trained 4500 students, acted 28 boarding schools for indigenous children. By 1940, 10 libraries were 53 thousand books, there were five Houses of Nenets, eight red tents, two cultural base. Public education has consistently solved the problem of introducing intermediate, and then a decade of teaching children.

During the great Patriotic war, thousands of residents went to the front to defend the Homeland. Remaining in the rear of women, the elderly, children worked selflessly. On the fishing camps, hunting trails, reindeer pastures, Yamal helped to forge a Great Victory.

After the end of the Patriotic war, the government adopted emergency measures to overcome economic and social difficulties in the North. First of all, strengthened the technical equipment of the fishing industry and hunting. Quickly developed new industry - farming. On farms bred silver foxes, blue foxes and mink. The most cost-effective way traditional industries began herding - strengthened technical and production base, has been widely used advances in science and technology.

In the postwar years was rapidly developing transport and communication. In 1949 in Labytnangi railway appeared. On the rivers ran passenger vessels, replenished van fleet, built large mechanized berths. Since 1964 introduced regular flights speed at the time of the An-24 aircraft in Tyumen, Taz, Tarko-sale, and in the summer of 1968 in Moscow.

There has been a fundamental re-equipment communication - electrical, telephone, mail. In 1964 on the air was first heard callsigns district radio, in 1968 - lit up TV screens.

In 60-ies of the last century has increased the network of cultural institutions: worked 17 houses of culture, 39 rural clubs, two of the national theatre, three music school, Museum, house of folk art. In 64 libraries there were 500 thousand books, cinema chains in more than 100 cinemas.

Now

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous Okrug - the backbone of Russia's economy: This phrase, often repeated by journalists, could not be better reflects the reality. The industrial future of the Autonomous Okrug as the main fuel and energy complex of the country has defined a new industry - Geology. In the summer of 1958 in Salekhard was created Yamalo-Nenets complex geological expedition. Began an intensive search for hydrocarbon deposits. April 14, 1962 in Taz tundra scored the first gas blowout. From 1964 to 1966 on the Yamal 'talking' five major fields, including Gubkinskiy with a stock 350 billion cubic meters of gas and the world's largest Urengoy. 1967 gave three fields, including a unique bear. The next year brought another three oil and gas area. In 1972 gas Bear on the pipeline went to the Urals. In 1978 earned the gas pipeline Urengoy-Nadym. Gas Singapore joined the line Urengoy - Tyumen - Chelyabinsk. Yamal oil and gas became a reality. The names of small villages, lost in the endless expanses of tundra and taiga, - Nadym, Novy Urengoy, Tarko-sale, Noyabrsk - now known throughout the world.

Today on the territory of Yamal, which is to 750.3 thousand km2, population slightly more than 516 thousand people, that is, of 0.7 people per square kilometre. But Autonomous Okrug occupies the third place in Russia by the amount of taxes paid to the Federal budget. Since 2000 this figure had increased by 5 times in 2005 will exceed 7 billion $. Gross regional product of the YNAO is growing at an average of 14.5% per year. In 2004 it amounted to 15.4 billion $., in 2005 is expected to increase another 3.6 billion$.

Yamal produces 91% of all the country's natural gas (23.7% of world production) and more than 14% of Russian oil and gas condensate. In total, the County produces more than 54% of the primary energy resources of Russia. A giant part of the natural resources of the region still waits for industrial development.

Yamal today is a stable, dynamically developing region where laid a solid Foundation for future socio-economic development, allowing to build ambitious plans for the future. Developed in the administration of the Autonomous region development strategy Yamal 2020 links the development of fuel-energy complex with the formation of new sectors of the regional economy, necessary for modern life.

One of the global long-term projects is the development of gas resources of the Peninsula and Kara sea shelf. There are 11 gas and 15 oil and gas deposits. Potential resources based gas offshore estimated at 50.5 trillion. cubic metres of liquid hydrocarbons, more than 5 billion tons.

Another big initiative is the creation of the territory of the Polar Urals the new centre of the mining industry, providing raw materials metallurgy neighboring regions. Today in the polar Urals is developing rich deposits of chromium, manganese, bauxite, gold. According to experts, the total value of the mining reserves of raw materials is estimated at 220 billion.

Together with the Siberian scientific and analytical center of RAO 'Russian Railways' administration of YNAO is currently working on the development of a network of Railways, roads and telecommunication systems. They should relate the Arctic Yamal Peninsula with large industrial centers of the Urals. The project also envisages the development of the energy sector and the petrochemical industry on the basis of low-pressure associated petroleum and gas reserves on the Peninsula huge.

Today 89 regions of Russia takes the seventh place in the nation in terms of attracted investments. Since 1999, investment in fixed capital increased by almost five times. In the fall of 2004, the rating Agency Standard&Poor's announced increase of Yamal long-term credit rating: B+/Stable on the international scale, 'EN A+' with a Russian national. The Agency also noted the high creditworthiness of the region.

One of the features of Yamal is that in the district came together two completely different type of management: industrial mining and the traditional indigenous people of the far North activities. In the region there is the biggest livestock reindeer - 600 thousand, in the Ob basin produces one third of world reserves of valuable whitefish species of fish. One tenth of the district's area is about 8 million hectares - is a protected natural area. Industry and traditional Northern crafts peacefully coexist on the territory of Yamal, and the decision problems of indigenous minorities of the far North are in the area of priority attention of the Governor and the government of the Autonomous Okrug.

The Arctic region of Russia today - comfortable living area, which traditionally has a pronounced social orientation: more than 80% of expenditure main financial document is directed to the solution of social problems of the population. In the district is extremely developing housing construction, building modern schools, hospitals, sports facilities, particularly in remote areas, are proving to be effective social support to those who need it. The district can rightly be proud of their achievements in the field of the children's summer vacation: more than 70 percent of young because every summer to go on rest and treatment in the best resorts of the country. In the region is now being implemented more than thirty social programs.

The Autonomous Okrug Governor Yurii Neelov: 'We want our land has become a region that is characterized by a diversified, high-tech economy, fully developed infrastructure, well-kept towns and villages, healthy environment. We have all the hardworking people, natural resources, understanding of one's own perspectives and the importance of our work together for the whole of Russia. And most importantly - a common will to make the Yamal prosperous region of the country'.

Indigenous peoples of the Yamal-Nenets Autonomous district

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous district - the historic homeland of the peoples of the far North: the Nenets, Khanty, Selkup.

The proportion of aboriginal people in the total population of the district is seven percent (36 million), the nomadic lifestyle is more than 13 thousand people (representing 40 per cent of the total aboriginal population). For support of indigenous peoples of the North Autonomous district provides special programs and provides significant funds in the district budget.

For example, the program 'Culture, language, traditional lifestyle of indigenous peoples of the North in Yamal-Nenets Autonomous district, 2003-2007' absorbs about 30 million rubles. It should be noted that the allocated funds are spent primarily for the solution of social problems of northerners: purchase of Spa vouchers for the indigenous population of the County. scholarships for children of the tundra-dwellers, students in higher and secondary educational institutions. In addition, from the County budget are allocated for assistance to the Institute of traditional crafts and Russian state pedagogical University. Herzen (St. Petersburg), with an enrollment of indigenous peoples of Yamal.

Basically, the children of the tundra-dwellers are educated in boarding schools. Now in region there are 23 schools-boarding school, with an enrollment of about 9 thousand indigenous children. The education of their children is governed by the regulations of Yamal, in which, in particular, guaranteed full gooberpea in the education of such children. In particular, the content of the boarding schools, children's education, nutrition, clothing, shipping from encampments in schools, etc. are paid from the budget of the region. Specialized boarding school-education helps to preserve the identity of the Northern peoples. Thus, according to the census results 2002 in the region over 80% of indigenous people speak the native language. This is a very high figure, indeed, among the indigenous peoples of other regions of Russia, the average native language have about 70%".

In the budget Law of Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous district for 2006 included proposals on a district targeted programmes relating to socio-economic development of the indigenous peoples of the region. Including the development of reindeer herding, traditional crafts northerners, integrated processing of products of these industries, the establishment of trading posts and spread factoring forms of trade and barter, development of market infrastructure in tundra areas. A worthy representative of the tundra-dwellers in the relationship with authorities and mutually beneficial partnership with gas companies operating in the areas traditional residence of the Nenets and Khanty is about circuitous Association of indigenous peoples of the Yamal for descendants" .

The Nenets

The Nenets are one of the largest Samoyed peoples. Self nenezi - "man", Nena nenezi` - 'real man' was introduced in official use in 1930, Originally Nenets called Samoyeds or Samoyeds-urakami. The mention of this feature in the earliest Russian chronicle "Tale of bygone years", referring to the beginning of the XII century the origin of the term "Samoyed" is treated differently. It is most likely his appearance from saam-jedna - "land of the Sami". Distinguish self hasawa - Western Yamal Nenets, Nina nenezi - East of the Yamal Nenets and Gudi, Nenets - different groups.

On economic-cultural type of life of the Nenets are divided into three groups. The first and most (90%) tundra Nenets, the main occupation of which is herding productive direction. They have mastered the most Northern areas. The second group - forest Nenets inhabit the taiga of the Ob-Yenisei watershed, mostly on the PP. PUR, Taz and Agan, engaged mainly in transport reindeer herding, hunting and fishing. They are a link between Samoyedic tribes Sayan highland and tundra Nenets, speak a distinctive dialect of Nenets language. The third group - solvency is formed on The European North in the area of Colva R. in the nineteenth century as a result of marriages of men-Nenets and women-Komi. Says on the Izhma dialect of the Komi language.

According to the most convincing hypothesis, Samoyed community has developed in southern Siberia. In the first century A. D. part of Samoyeds moved to the North, and the other part became part of the Turkic peoples of southern Siberia. During the first Millennium B. C. a large part of Samoyeds moved by the Ob, the Yenisei and the rivers in the Northern taiga, tundra and then, having assimilated the aboriginal population. Then the ancestors of the Nenets spread from the lower Ob river in the West to the White sea, and to the XVIIth century on the East to the Yenisei.

The traditional occupation of the Nenets reindeer herding. National characteristics of this industry: year-round grazing of animals under the supervision of shepherds and herding dogs, sled (pull) method of riding a deer. Used passenger and cargo sleds. Straight stanchions Nenets sled consists of a body attached to the curved front runners. For robustness, the stanchions down somewhat diluted, so that the distance between the rails is greater than the width of the seat. The male passenger sleds only have the rear back seat, female - anterior and lateral to comfortably ride with the kids. In a motor - harness "fan" from three to seven deer. Sit on them with the left hand, controlled by reins attached to the halter (or bridle without a bit, with the reason) left the deer, and the pole-chorea with bone buttons at the end. Sometimes on the other end chorea put a metal spear tip (last chorei along with onions served weapons). The harness is made from deer skin or a sea hare. In cargo sleds towed by two deer, and a five-or six cargo sleds are the caravan (the past), tying deer chains or straps to the front of the sled. Each leads past the passenger in a passenger sled, often teenage girls, and nearby male passenger sled drive the herd. To catch with a lasso animals need, making a special corral (corral), using the sled. Reindeer eat moss - moss. As the depletion of fodder reserves have to change pastures. With the deer herd and shepherds roam with their families.

To the nomadic lifestyle suited collapsible shelter - tent (sleeps') is a cone-shaped structure, the skeleton of which consists of 25 - 30 poles. In winter the hut covered in two layers tires-nukes from the skins of deer, in the summer of specially crafted birch bark. In the center of the tent before starting the fire, now melt the iron stove. Above the fireplace was strengthened strap with hook for the kettle or boiler, on both sides of him sleeping places, and against the entry - objects of pagan worship, and later icons, as well as clean dishes. Each time their travel to dismantle the tent, tires, bed, poles, dishes stack up on special sleigh.

Dressing the skins of deer and fur-bearing animals, clothes, bags, tires plague women. Clothes and utensils were richly decorated with fur mosaic (of the skin white and dark), braided beaded jewelry, embroidered podanym deer hair, cut on wood.

The set of traditional men's clothing includes the malitsa hooded (deaf airy shirt is made of reindeer skin with the fur inside), pants, boots, felt boots made of reindeer skin with the fur on the outside and stockings with fur on the inside. To protect the membrane, on top of malitsa wear a shirt made of cotton and podpoyasyvayushchem rawhide strap, decorated with brass openwork buckles or buttons. Strap on chains attached to the knife in the sheath, sharpening stone, and the rear as an amulet - the tooth of a bear. In cold weather, on top of malitsa wear sovico - clothing, hooded style similar to malitsa, but made the fur on the outside.

Women's clothing in contrast to the male - swing. In the old days it was made of skins of wild animals with fringes at the hem of dog fur. Later they began to sew of deerskin, with a collar of Fox fur or red foxes. Skirts are not plowed, and knotted suede straps or ribbons, and decorated with ornamental panels of white and dark fur. To handbag for sewing supplies, which were cut from the skins from the foreheads of deer and richly decorated with ornaments, attach a pincushion and a small pouch for the thimble. Woven of colored woolen yarns belt complements round buckle with a diameter of up to 20 centimeters. Women's hats are local differences. The most common hoods are made of reindeer fur trimming of Arctic Fox tails to the back of them on chains hung from copper openwork plaques. Women's shoes are different from men's tailoring. For young children from soft deer skins sewed clothes like overalls.

The main food is deer meat (raw and cooked), fish, bread. Favourite drink - tea. It, as metal utensils, exchanged among Russian traders. Wooden utensils-bowls, cups, spoons - made themselves.

Religious beliefs of the Nenets were based on animistic conceptions, according to which the Supreme heavenly deity - the demiurge Num - ruled the world with the help of other deities and spirits, and his wife I' -neba - "Mother earth" - the old lady-patroness, bringing forth and preserving all life, protect home, family and hearth. Antagonist NUMA stands nga - world evil incarnate, the spirit of the underground world, the deity, the sending of disease and death. Each lake, fishing the tract had their spirit masters. They sacrificed the deer, making offerings (pieces of cloth, coins, tobacco, etc.) so that the spirits gave health, luck reindeer husbandry and fishery. On the sacred places, which could be stones, rocks, groves, put idols in the form of anthropomorphic figures. Sacred tree believed larch.

Khanty

On the territory of the Khanty of Yamal-Nenets live mainly in Shuryshkarsky and Uralic areas. Ethnonyms "Khanty" is derived from the name of the people of chance. As official titles was adopted after 1917, and in the old scientific literature and documents in the Imperial administration of the Khanty people were called Ostyaks.

G. S. Dunin-Garkovich researcher at the beginning of the century, who travelled in these parts, describes the natives: "Ostyaks in the mass differ kindness, readiness to help each and strict honesty. They do not cherish each other no feud and peaceful live. Begging the Ostyaks unknown: every poor feel entitled to come to a more wealthy, and to enjoy his food, especially after a good catch animals or fish. Among them there is even a sort of public charity by virtue of which every old and unable to work Ostyak, if he has no relatives, it feeds alternately relatives'.

To refer to the people of the Khanty in the scientific literature has established himself another term - Ob Ugrians. The first part indicates the main place of residence, and the second comes from the word "Ugra", "Yugoria". Was known in the Russian annals XI - XV centuries, the land in the polar Urals and Western Siberia, as well as its inhabitants.

The Khanty language linguists refer to Ugric (Ugra); this group is related to the Hungarian language. Ugric languages Finno-Ugric group of the Uralic language family.
Based on the fact that Khanty language belongs to the Finno-Ugric group, it is assumed that once existed and the community of people speaking the proto-language. The question of where was the ancestral home of this community is extremely difficult. Despite the ambiguity and inconsistency of origin Khants, researchers are unanimous in the opinion that dvukhkomponentnoi their culture, which has absorbed the traditions of the local taiga tribes and the newcomers from the South Ugric peoples. Linguists suggest the possibility of the ancient ties of the Uralic language family Indo-European and Turkic, there are Parallels with Yukaghir, Chukchi-Kamchatkan, the eskimo-Aleut languages, discovered the connection with proiranske languages.

Khanty were traditionally semi-sedentary hunters and fishermen, also on the North was engaged in reindeer herding in the South - cattle. Hunters and fishermen for each time of year there was a seasonal settlement and housing. Types of housing there were many, some of them were temporary, collapsible, others permanent. Various outbuildings were there were places of worship.

Household items made from local materials: wood, birch bark, cedar root, etc.
Clothing Khanty differed significantly between groups: the Northern dominated deaf (no cut, worn over the head), South and East wing. Rich and varied ornament.

Selkups

The Selkup people Samoyedic language group. Live in krasnoselkupskiy district Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous, kargasokskiy, Parabel, top-ket areas and rural areas of the city of Kolpashevo, Tomsk region. The total number of Selkup - about 4 thousand people. Historically composed of Selkup there are two geographically isolated groups - North and South. The self-designation of the Northern Selkups - Selkup, Selkup (taiga). In pre-revolutionary ethnographic literature they are usually called Ostyaks or Ostyak-Samoyeds. Modern ethnonym introduced in the 30 years of the twentieth century and initially was perceived only with the Northern group. The southern Selkups he established himself in the last two decades. Selkup language belongs to the Samoyedic branch of the Uralic family of languages. In it are six dialects and two transitional dialect.

The Russians settled on the Middle Ob in the late 16th century. By this time there existed Selkup Association, known as the Piebald Horde led by a Prince of the Scents, which has long refused to recognize the authority of the Russian Tsar. Only with the Foundation of Naryn Burg (1596), the Russians managed to impose Selkup tribute. In the early 18th century were baptized Tomsk Selkup. In the second half of the 19th century, enhanced by a Russian emigrant flow to areas of residence of the Selkups. Under the influence of the Russians they began to settle in villages having livestock to gardening. Economic and cultural relations Selkup and Russian were secured of family and marriage. Since the late 19th century all the Selkups fundamental social unit has become a neighborhood community, which included representatives of various ethno-territorial groups, unrelated by blood.

Selkups were complex economy, the main industries were fishing and hunting. Transport reindeer knew only the Northern Selkups. Economic regress Selkups to the early 17th century, the researchers explain the abundance of fur-bearing animals, which differed Western Siberia, which became one of the main centers of concentration of the fur traders of the various civilized countries of that time. Sable in the middle Ob area was destroyed in the late 17th century, therefore, the principal object of fur hunting Selkup was a squirrel. On the prevalence of squirrel fishing says the Selkups in the 19th century special exchange units Sarum is a bundle of ten squirrel fur. For Narym Selkups of great importance were hunting for upland game birds - grouse, black grouse, grouse, which was the main source of meat. The second most important in the economy Selkup was fishing. Main target species - sturgeon, salmon, Cisco, broad whitefish, whitefish, sturgeon. From traditional guns fisheries, the most widely entangling net, was known to stop fishing. Reindeer herding was engaged in the Northern Selkups. Selkup reindeer - taiga type. The size of herds and seasonal routes movements are relatively small. Selkups, unlike the Nenets, did not use a herding dog. Grazing by deer generally practiced rarely, even in winter.

For Selkup characteristic of animistic ideas about the world. The good, the demiurge was considered Nom, who personified the sky. Ruler of evil had Kizi abode under the ground. Art Selkup presents ornamentation on birchbark utensils, bone detail deerskin harness, sheath, and other household items. Characteristic of many of the peoples of Siberia decoration of clothing is not received from the Selkups wide distribution. In traditional folklore is Central to the description of the various adventures of the hero, his confrontations with evil spirits, which are always defeated. From musical instruments existed harp - mouth of antler plate with vibrating reed, a seven-stringed harp Swan. The Northern Selkups only musical instrument was a shaman drum.

Who are they, the Selkups. May be they inhabitants of the ancient world Samoyed world who have remained in their place when they moved late aliens - Samoyeds-herders, who retired from the South to the tundra with their herds? Maybe they are the same part of the ancient population, which was not clearly divided on Samoyed and Ugric peoples? There is also a third theory: maybe the Selkups - the product of mixing of the Samoyed and Ugric peoples? These questions remain questions. And evaluate Selkup is very difficult, as they are in all their cultural habits close to Ugrians and Samoyeds.

Interesting fact:

Language — developing complex semiotic system, which is specific and universal means of objectification of the content of individual consciousness and cultural traditions, providing the possibility of intersubjectivity, procedural unfolding in space-time forms and reflexive thinking.