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Information about the project to create NASD

Today we offer to your attention a brief description of the project discussed in this conference. The project to create a National Electronic Sound of the Depositary is of great importance in the safeguarding of the audio heritage of the peoples of Russia, which is one of the most important parts of their cultural heritage. The relevance of the implementation of this project caused today's realities and is determined by many factors.

The General situation recently in the institutions of the Russian Academy of Sciences due to lack of funding, cannot but cause serious concern. In St. Petersburg in a difficult situation there are many known in the scientific world academic institutions, including, for example, the Institute of Russian literature (Pushkin House), which includes storage of sound recordings - the audio archive. Currently, the audio archive is part of the Department of folk-poetry IRLI. The information stored in books, manuscripts and archival records are of great value not only for Russia but for the whole world. To preserve this priceless historical and cultural and scientific heritage for future generations, it is necessary to take immediate action. From time to time by the efforts of academics and foreign scientists-enthusiasts organizes various projects aimed at the preservation of historical and cultural heritage. But isolated and scattered projects that will not solve the problem: it needs to be addressed in an integrated manner with the involvement of the state and sponsors.

Yamalo-Nenets Autonomous district, with a strong financial capabilities that can radically affect prevailing in the academic organizations of Saint-Petersburg the situation. The first step in this work was the signing on 13 December 2006 Memorandum "On participation in the preservation of collections of historical records of indigenous languages of the North of the phonogram archive of the Pushkin House". He was signed by the Governor YANAO Y. V. Neyelov and head of the Scientific center of St. Petersburg branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, the Nobel prize winner academician Z. I. Alferov.

First of all, serious concern is the preservation of sound collections. It is not so much the conditions of storage of archival materials, which, as the analysis of sound archives, far from ideal, but with the durability to store the media: Ponomariov, various records, magnetic tapes, etc., which for a long period of time was used to record sound. After a certain time the information recorded on such media, may be irretrievably lost to future generations. In this situation, only the translation of sound recordings from analog format to a more reliable modern digital formats will allow you to save and make them available to a wide range of users.

Another problem faced by sound archives, is the aging of recording and reproducing analog technology due to the rapid introduction of digital technology. And digital formats change pretty quickly in a short period of time. Many sound archives, not having sufficient financial resources, do not lag behind the development of modern technology and digital technology. There are also other factors influencing the situation in the sound archives. For example, that in our country there is no uniform state program on preservation sound heritage. There is also a clearly-defined strategy of using a single modern digital formats for storing sound archives. However, in St. Petersburg in a number of sound archives, as in the phonogram archive is working to preserve the audio heritage, but it goes very slowly, an inadequate level of funding and without application of the uniform standards of sound archiving. Therefore, if we do not take decisive action to improve the situation in this direction, soon sound archives in Russia can be irretrievably lost to future generations.

This is why the idea, expressed in a joint "Memorandum" dated 13 December 2006 and aimed at preserving the archival collections of records of indigenous peoples of the North, in particular Nenets collections, evolved into the idea of a large-scale project to create a National digital Sound Depository on the basis of the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature.

From the history of the phonogram archive of the Institute of Russian literature (Pushkin House). The phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature historically dates back to the established in the beginning of XX century on the initiative of A. A. Shakhmatov the phonogram archive of the 1st Slavic branch of the Library of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. The basis of the Fund Phonographic archive amounted recording on wax cylinders samples of folklore of the peoples of Russia and Eastern Europe, collected in a folk-linguistic expeditions his first head E. A. Wolter, and A. A. Ahmatova, N. With.Derzhavin and other scientists.

Currently, the Fund phonogram archive consists of over 150 000 items. Along with recordings of Russian folklore that make up the bulk of the collections, it presents sound materials of different Nations and nationalities living on the territory of Russia and abroad. The specificity of the phonogram archive lies in the diversity of its funds generated for nearly a hundred years. The earliest records of sampled speech and folklore on the first recording apparatus – phonographs were made in Russia in the late nineteenth century, shortly after the invention of the phonograph and in the same period, the oldest European phonogrammarchiv Vienna and Berlin.

In addition to the rich sound recordings in the audio archive has manuscript collection and song archive, which stores music decryption tunes and are also insufficiently known in the art, because the directories are not fully published. If we turn to printed sources of the folklore of the peoples of the North, Siberia and the Far East, published to date, we do not find in them even a tenth part of what give us Phonographic records and Handwritten archival documents of the Fund IRLI relating to the collection of sound recordings.

Folk phonogram archive collection, a unique collection of sound recordings and manuscripts that have preserved rare specimens of oral tradition, are of great value to the history of world culture. This is evidenced by the fact that UNESCO has included the historical collections of the phonogram archive of the Pushkin House in the program "memory of the World" ("Memory of the World").

In 1970-80-ies on the initiative of V. V. Korguzalov (at the time head of the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature) and with the support of academician D. S. Likhachev information with wax cylinders was rewritten on the magnetic tape. Since they are stored in the audio archive and await their fate. In recent years, the rapid development of modern digital technology an opportunity of transfer of archival records from analog format to digital. And this must be done as soon as possible to save valuable sound archive for future generations and make it available for examination by specialists various fields of science.

Not less important role in the collation and study of some collections also played a series of international projects, most of which was initiated and organized by the Dutch Professor Terdam de Graaf, an excellent scientist and a wonderful man, generously giving their time and their energy to the study and preservation of indigenous languages under threat of extinction sound collections. For example, in 2003 at the initiative Tienda de Graaff initiated a project called "Voices of tundra and taiga". One of the directions of this project was to investigate and sound handwritten phonogram archive of materials on the languages and folklore of the peoples of the North, Siberia and Far East of Russia. In the framework of this project the staff of the phonogram archive of the J. A. Marchenko and A. Y. Kostrov, leading researcher of the Institute of linguistic studies, A. A. Burykin, Professor of St Petersburg State University N. D.Svetozarov has done extensive work on the modernization of a significant part of the directory of fonotipia phonogram archive and also the description stored in the manuscripts. The results of this work have been published in the book "Collection of peoples of the North in the phonogram archive of the Pushkin Home" that contains information stored in the audio archive collections collected during the XX century by famous researchers Ethnography, language and folklore of the peoples of Russia, Central Asia, Far East and North America or recorded by the staff of the phonogram archive in the 1920s - 1930s from the students of the Leningrad Institute of living Oriental languages, and the Institute of peoples of the North. Among them are the names of famous poets, writers and public figures of the Northern peoples of the Russian Federation. The publication contains the list of ethnic groups and the list of collectors. The book comes with a CD that the electronic catalog contains the "Northern" collections, description of related manuscript material and samples of sound recordings. The work was aimed to attract attention of a wide range of historians, ethnographers, linguists, musicologists - to the phonogram archive of the Pushkin House.

Nenets collection of the phonogram archive of the Institute of the Russian literature. As already noted, in the framework of the present project is supposed to work on digitizing audio collections of indigenous peoples of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug, in the first place Nenets collections. The fact that the Nenets collection phonogram archive of the Pushkin House, among which are the collection consisting solely of records of samples of Nenets folklore and collection of language recordings in mixed collections are exceptionally rich in comparison with records of other indigenous peoples of the North. They include samples of different genres from song melodies that do not have verbal text, to record the epic genres. Some materials, in particular records from the collections of G. D. Fedorova, A. M. Shcherbakova and other meetings, have supporting documentation in the Manuscript collection of the phonogram archive that contains the records in the current chart and Nenets translation of texts in Russian language. The quality of the philological treatment of many Nenets folklore texts held in the Manuscript collection of the phonogram archive is very high, and these materials deserve to be published. In addition, they should to be recognized as unique, since the same documents that would be available in other archival collections, specialists is unknown.

Currently in the collections of the phonogram archive of more than 12 collections Nenets records. Before you put these collections in a modern digital format, you each collection to analyze and correlate with handwritten materials, i.e. to make the transcript of the audio material. In the project this part of the work is expected to be held in conjunction with the Institute of linguistic studies, RAS. The materials in the Manuscript collection, heterogeneous and include the following types of documents:

o texts in Nenets language, appropriate tone of texts on cushions;
* translations of the texts of the entries in the bolsters;
o summaries of the texts of the recordings on the rollers, made in Russian;
o sotirovski song recordings on cushions;
o a variety of documents related to the work on writing samples Nenets language and folklore on Phonographic cylinders.

 

Further, according to the same principles will work for the conservation of other sound collections of the Pushkin House.

Given the vital importance of maintaining sound collections for future generations, a project to create NASD has not only scientific, but also political significance. The scientific community of Saint-Petersburg and the organizers of the project hope that in the future this project will resonate and serious support from the other subjects of the Russian Federation, and also by the Central authorities. The work on preservation of archival records, based on the most advanced computer technology, requires considerable financial investments, both in laboratories and in the process of digitizing audio materials. Only the efforts of all stakeholders to solve long-overdue task of preserving our cultural heritage and broad access to all comers.

Technical requirements for digitization of analogue magnetic recordings in a digital format. All the work on the digitization and preservation in this format, must strictly comply with the special standards established by the Technical Committee of the International Association of Sound and Audiovisual Archives (IASA), which functions under the auspices of UNESCO.

According to the requirements of the Technical Committee, the digitisation process must also comply with the standard IASA-TC 04, 6.5 for recording studios: you must use analog to digital Converter high accuracy, archival permission which complies with international standards – 96 kHz, 24 bit. In addition to the transfer of archival records to modern digital media, the final result of the work of the participants of the project should be to develop an electronic directory of sound collections. According to archival requirements, the main parameters (fields) description each storage unit must be:

1. archive number;
2. room collection;
3. the sequence number in the collection;
4. recording speed;
5. the quality of the recording;
6. type of recording (mono/stereo);
7. the initial string record;
8. name entries;
9. genre designation;
10. language; ethnicity;
11. the number of performers;
12. date of the record;
13. the area of existence;
14. a list of collectors;
15. singer/songwriter.

In addition, each collection must be accompanied by full information about the technical parameters of modern equipment, which is used in the process of digitizing the analog archival records and scanning of various manuscripts.

In the framework of the project for the organization of access to the collections part of the materials of the Manuscript collections of interest to future researchers and historians, will be translated into electronic form and applied to sound materials so that they could also be used for research purposes in other regions of the Russian Federation. In addition, it should be applied to the audio content of the detailed description, which includes bibliographic data collectors, time and venue of the records or expeditions.

Thus, in the course of the joint project is planned:

* copy of original sound collections on modern digital media;
* create accessible catalog of Manuscript materials of the Fund, including in electronic form;
* copies of the Manuscript collections for users and translating them to modern electronic media;
* organization of joint conferences with the participation of leading experts in these areas;
* the publication of joint scientific papers on project results;
* publication of materials on the project in the press, Petersburg, in Russia and abroad.

 

The text of the project description prepared Phys.N., associate Professor V. N. Denisov.
 

Interesting fact:

To preserve the original sound tracks used audio format 24 bit 96 kHz. 1 minute this mono recording is on the hard drive of the computer more than 17 megabytes. For comparison, 1 minute recording in mp3 format has a size of about 1 megabyte.