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Pushkin house (Institute of the Russian literature, RAS)

At first glance it seems that St. Petersburg is full of sculptural monuments. Not so much compared with other capital and important cities of the world. Another thing — the memorability of monuments grada Petrova, their zapechatlennoy in the soul of anyone who has seen (and, perhaps, never seen too) and in our national soul. No wonder sometimes so seamlessly, like a second, not material but purely spiritual birth and perpetuation.

"The bronze horseman" by Pushkin again carved in his poem and permanently appropriated to the monument of Peter the great it became a symbolic name. "Alexander column" all know and Pushkin's verse...

And when it finally came to the monument to Pushkin, the opening in Moscow in 1880 sculpture of the poet A. M. Opekushin was higher and really spiritual performance: moment (alas, only a moment) the national resolution and reconciliation. Which accompanied the opening of the monument to Pushkin holiday "became a kind of spiritual lists, where was Ivan Turgenev and Ivan Aksakov, and Alexander Ostrovsky. And where the undisputed winner was Fyodor Dostoevsky who spoke his famous revelation — the speech "Pushkin".

So when at the time of preparation for the centenary of the birth of the great Russian poet (1899) there was a question about a new monument to him in St. Petersburg, it became clear that hardly need to compete with Moscow in the perpetuation of traditional sculptural. A modest monument to the poet, mounted on Pushkin street in Petersburg, only underlined this. And if the Professor of the Academy of arts MJ Willie relatively restrained wrote that this figure, unworthy of the poet, and unworthy of the capital, the writer A. I. Kuprin, for example, gave vent to anger: "we Must speak the truth: this is not a monument and a disgrace. The greatest poet of huge the country, its ardent, noble, pure in heart, her best son, our first pride and our justification and founder of the great Russian literature — we managed to deliver the most bourgeois, vulgar, pathetic, scrawny monument in the world. Not in its small size here is resentment. And in his ideological insignificance".

In the air floated the idea of a completely different and new tribute to the poet, which would not only be growing and its growing role in the life of Russia, and, maybe, she would have continued to grow and grow.

The Academy of Sciences established the Commission on the device of the celebration of the centenary of the birth of the great Russian poet A. S. Pushkin. Its Chairman became the President of the Imperial Academy of Sciences of the Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich – poet, known under the pseudonym K. R., one of the most educated people of that time, the most refined connoisseur of the arts, musician, translator. The Commission consisted of writers (e.g., D. V. Grigorovich), composers (N. A. Rimsky-Korsakov), statesmen (S. Witte), academics (A. N. Veselovsky, A. A. Shakhmatov), representatives of the Academy of arts, St. Petersburg University.

"We need to come up with such an institution, something that didn't exist in Russia, and, moreover, the institution that would participate all competent Russia and which is most consistent with the meaning of the great poet. It seems to me that such an institution could become Odeon Pushkin. This should be a special, newly built building in the Central area of St. Petersburg. Here could occur in the annual contest of the poets who presented their works in the face of all the people and has been crowned with awards. Here could occur in the presentation of dramatic works of Pushkin," — wrote in December 1898 G. the Trustee of Orenburg educational district I. Y. Rostovtsev member of the anniversary of the Pushkin Commission academician L. N. Maikova...

"Attend on the establishment of something such that, in its separateness and wholeness not only would have remained an enduring memento of the celebration, but would also have been and development," suggested the poet K. K. sluzewski, also a member of the Commission.

"I am well aware of his importunity," wrote another member of the Pushkin Commission V. A. Anton famous singer L. V. Sobinova, is well aware that can cause an annoying feeling towards me, but what do you do if the case, which I have to disturb people standing above the crowd, so great and so beautiful! It is the case, and will protect me and will justify in your eyes. This, of course, the same is the greatest Pushkin... the Idea of the Pushkin House, the house luminaries of literature, where it would be concentrated all these luminaries concerns, so passionate..."

This idea fascinated Leonid Sobinov, who repeatedly gave concerts in favor of the Pushkin House. And not only him — and Fyodor Chaliapin, and Vera Komissarzhevskaya, and Konstantin Varlamov...

So the idea of Pushkin House originally was organically linked with the Academy of Sciences, with the intellectual elite of Russia.

Many years later Alexander Block forever cemented it's position in the famous, became literally a poetic formula poetry "Pushkin House":

The Name Of The Pushkin House
In The Academy Of Sciences!
The sound is clear and familiar,
is Not empty for the heart sound! <...>

Pushkin! Secret freedom
we Sang after you!
Give us a hand in bad weather,
Help to mute the fight!

Not if your sounds sweetness
Inspired in those years? Not yours, Pushkin, joy
Inspires us then?

That's why so familiar
And dear to the hearts of sound —
the Name of the Pushkin House
In Academy of Sciences.

That's why at the sunset
Leaving in the night,
With a white square of the Senate
Quietly bowing to him.

It turned out, the last poem of the Block and became prophetic. The poet is not without reason "with a white square of the Senate" (now Decembrists square) bowed Pushkin House, for he was then located in the main building of the Academy of Sciences. Take some time and Pushkin House will take in their vault and heritage Block: manuscripts, the library has become memorabilia.

The case for the establishment of what would be actually the Pushkin House, was then successively and gradually prepared, so to speak, historically. His background is primarily Pushkin the exhibition, organized and conducted by the Academy of Sciences. In the Large conference hall of its main building this exhibition was opened in may jubilee 1899 Abundant material from documents, books, diverse iconography and life memorials of two, extracted from many institutions and private collections, skillfully organized and presented (guide here was carried out by academician L. N. Mike and B. L. Modzalevsky), helped clarify the contours of the Pushkin House. And, of course, then there was a desire to keep all of this magnificent collection, so necessary for the study and dissemination of Pushkin's heritage.

Alas, these are already determined by the contours of the new institution was blurred and eroded: the exhibits after the exhibition closed, then parted again to different places. But the idea of a single of the Pushkin center, which could absorb all this wealth, the more stronger it is because have already received, in fact, a certain, albeit temporary implementation. According to the fair remark of the famous Pushkin N. V. Izmailov, Pushkin House has been formed, without waiting for the implementation of the original idea of the house-monument, and this was certainly evidence of organic life needs of the country such permanentinstitutions.

In jubilee 1899 was established, also at the Academy of Sciences and is also under the chairmanship of its President, Grand Duke Konstantin Konstantinovich, the Commission on the construction of the actual monument to the poet, who also came to the notion of a different, non-traditional monument to Pushkin.

Initially it was assumed that the monument as a combination of sculpture and the building will be located on the waterfront of Trinity to Sampsonievsky bridge and that this embankment will get the name of Pushkin. City Council rejected the proposal, and the promenade was renamed Peter (after Peter the Great). Not be realized and the intention to put such a monument at the corner of Kamennoostrovsky Prospekt and embankment of Peter the Great, that is, in the Trinity square area.

And even then, in fact, there was an opinion that such an unusual monument to Pushkin as the father of modern Russian literature will become a monument in honor of all Russian literature and the centre of its study. Pushkin House, wrote to his future Keeper M. D. Belyaev, "took its Genesis in a number of other academic institutions as the Institute of the history of modern Russian literature". This was said long before he became such an institution...

The establishment of the House of Pushkin took place only in 1905, the Commission on the erection of the monument (and she's already collected the money) finally publicly opened question: "would it Not be advisable to erect a monument to Alexander Pushkin is not in the form of a statue, and in the form of a special construction of the Museum. In this Museum, which should be set to the name of Pushkin as the founder of our fine literature, will focus all of our outstanding artists of the word, such as: manuscripts, things, edition, essays, etc.". Printing, the Russian public supported the proposal. At the Commission meeting December 15, 1905 issue received General approval, was solved. In February 1907, the same Commission has changed almost established the name "Pushkin House" with "Pushkin House" and took the Position, which States that it is public domain and is administered by the Imperial Academy of Sciences".

However, creation of the Pushkin House began even before its official institutions working efforts of enthusiasts, especially B. L. Modzalevsky. Another anniversary in 1899, Vice-President of the Academy of Sciences, an outstanding academician of Pushkin, L. N. Mike offered to buy the Pushkin library. In 1900 it Modzalevsky examined her and moved from the suburban village of Ivanovo, where it was kept in the estate of the grandson of the poet Alexander Alexandrovich, in Petersburg to the Library of the Academy of Sciences. While for the sake of preserving its integrity...

"The acquisition of the library of the poet — wrote in February, 1906, one of the organizers of the future Museum, V. A. Anton, count I. I. Tolstoy, is the property of the Museum would be precious to him base, quite worthy of the great Pushkin, and, providing, on the one hand, the fate of this precious collection, on the other hand, would help the grandson of the poet to get out of the predicament into which it was introduced, among other things, and as a landowner heavy modern circumstances, and would give him the consciousness that despite this, and received, according to his attorney from abroad booksellers best deals, library his grandfather will remain forever the property of the Russian society".

In April 1906, the government allocated funds, and a big one — 18 thousand rubles — for the purchase of this library, which was transferred to the Pushkin House, essentially marking the beginning of its activities.

Now priceless book collection, numbering 3700 volumes (1523 names) in 14 languages, is kept in the Manuscript Department of the Pushkin House (in the famous house on the Moika, 12 — the last apartment of the poet presents doublets).

In 1907, on the initiative of the Minister of Finance count V. N. Kokovtsov, the question was raised about the acquisition of the outstanding Paris meeting-Museum of A. F. Onegin. There is an assumption that this passport "St. Petersburg College" was the illegitimate Scion of a dynastic name. He was raised by his godmother, and he, though it was not adopted, wore her name — Otto — until 1890, when by order of the Emperor Alexander III received the right to be called Onegin. However, informally already in 1866 he was called so in memory of Pushkin.

In 1879 forever leaving Russia, he devoted his whole life to the creation of the Pushkin Museum. His Paris apartment became a kind of Pushkin House in France. He gathered literally everything related to the life and work of the great poet, from rare autographs, books, life memorials of two to a variety of calendars, cards, perfume, school notebooks, etc.

In the early 1880s, his friend, the son of Vasily Andreyevich Zhukovsky Pavel, gave Onegin 60 Pushkin's manuscripts: the first edition of "the Count of Noline", fragments of "Egyptian nights", Boldin autograph "the Magistrates," etc Later on he handed the papers relating to the history of the duel and the death of Pushkin, many documents, rich Pushkin iconography. In addition, P. V. Zhukovsky were given to the archive and library of 400 volumes of his father. Gradually different owners and holders handed to the collector of the many values related to Russian and European culture. In Onegin meeting was autographs Lermontov and Gogol, Herzen and Turgenev, Ivan Aksakov and Ya.

Much he searched for and bought myself. The Museum, which has filled all three rooms of his apartment in Paris, was kept in perfect order. He served as a spiritual refuge and a symbol of Russia for many immigrants in the first years after the 1917 revolution, in fact, the whole life of A. F. Onegin podvizhnicheski was dedicated to the creation and maintenance of its unique collections.

V. N. Kokovtsov spent with Onegin negotiations for the acquisition of the Museum of the Imperial Academy of Sciences. He uttered to himself the right for life to benefit your congregation. According to the contract he received 10 thousand gold roubles at a time and 6 thousand annually on the completion of the collection. Ties were broken by the 1917 revolution, but resumed in 1919 Onegin died in 1925 After the resolution of complex legal issues in 1928, his collection began to arrive in the Pushkin House of the Academy of Sciences in dozens of containers: furniture, books, bronze, painting, gypsum. Part of the collection, primarily Pushkin's manuscripts, even went with the diplomatic couriers.

However, contrary to the will of the collector and the Pushkin House she was wasted (and raspisatsya). Many things have not got to the destination, and were transferred to other museums. To date, part of the memorial and art exhibits located in the all-Russian Museum of A. S. Pushkin. In the Hermitage transferred to the collection of coins. Pushkin House holds manuscript collection and library. In 1997, on the basis of materials of the Museum of A. F. Onegin was organized the exhibition "the Shadow of Pushkin adopted me...".

It should be noted that the Soviet government was guarding, sponsored, financed Pushkin House. Among the Directors we find the names of famous statesmen, writers: A. V. Lunacharsky, L. B. Kamenev, M. Gorky... Many years of the Pushkin House was directed by the famous Soviet literary critics: academician A. S. Bushmin, corresponding member of the USSR Academy of Sciences V. G. Bazanov. The last major government acquisition of Pushkin's letters were the bride Natalia Nikolaevna, then Goncharova, who was in the collection of Serge Lifar. According to his will they, before going to the auction, had to be proposed Pushkin House.

But back to the story. In 1918, by decree of the Conference of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Pushkin House as "the national Museum of a special type" received the status of an academic institution. Because of wars, confusion and turmoil the idea of building a special building, the Odeon, was never realized. Then, the sub-Commission on the device of the Pushkin House (it was created within the Commission for erection of monument to the poet, and it included, in addition to the "workhorses" V. A. Rychkova and B. L. By academicians S. F. Oldenburg, A. A. Shakhmatov, N. A. Kotlyarevsky) expressed the wish that in Pushkin House its main features was a building in the Empire style and included rooms for collections, a large hall for public meetings and classrooms for training scientific personnel.

Only in 1927 positivist the city Pushkin House has found a permanent place is built by architect I. F. Luchini with the classic eight-columned portico and copper sculptures of mercury, Neptune and Ceres over the pediment of the former chief of the Maritime customs (Russian Empire, the thirties of the nineteenth century). According to legend, been there and Pushkin.

The scale and nature of the plan is building on the waterfront Makarov even exceeded what was planned to build according to the original projects. Collection and collection, internally fragmented and scattered, were finally merged in a kind of integrity. This allowed to build the exhibit on historical principle, of course, with an emphasis dictated by the characteristics and volumes of the materials themselves. Over time, it is this aspect of the matter came to the fore at the Museum: General literary process has ceased to be the main theme of the exposition. She found first, so to speak, monographic in nature.

In Pushkin anniversary 1999 in front of the Pushkin House was built, or rather rebuilt classic bust of the poet, created by sculptor I. N. Schroeder, who once stood on Kamennoostrovsky Avenue in front of the building became Alexander the Tsarskoye Selo Lyceum. It gave the whole Pushkinska the ensemble complete. And in the yard, not visible from the facade, erected a building of modern archives, United with the main building by a glazed walkway.

Since 1930 Pushkin House becomes academic Institute of Russian literature (in abbreviated form — IRLI), while retaining their original name — Pushkin House and performing complex Museum and research complex, unique in the world for originality.
 

N. N. Rays
corresponding member of RAS

By ed.: Pushkin House. Album book.
M.: publishing Center "Classics", 2003.
P. 10-37

Interesting fact:

Language — developing complex semiotic system, which is specific and universal means of objectification of the content of individual consciousness and cultural traditions, providing the possibility of intersubjectivity, procedural unfolding in space-time forms and reflexive thinking.